2D:4D in Men Is Related to Aggressive Dominance but Not to Sociable Dominance

Leander van der Meij*, Mercedes Almela, Abraham P. Buunk, Shelli Dubbs, Alicia Salvador

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


It has been shown that a smaller ratio between the length of the second and fourth digit (2D:4D) is an indicator of the exposure to prenatal testosterone (T). This study measured the 2D:4D of men and assessed dominance as a personality trait to investigate indirectly if the exposure to prenatal T is related to a dominant personality later in life. Results showed that men had a more aggressive dominant personality when having a more masculine (lower) 2D:4D, while there was no relationship between sociable dominance and 2D:4D. Findings from this study indicate that it is important to distinguish different forms of dominance since other studies failed to find relationships between dominance and 2D:4D.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-212
JournalAggressive Behavior
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • 2D:4D
  • Aggressive dominance
  • Personality
  • Prenatal testosterone
  • Sociable dominance


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