A model for use-centered design of payment instruments applied to banknotes: Upid-model

Hans de Heij

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

1418 Downloads (Pure)


People use banknotes to pay retailers for person-to-person payments and for travelling. However, in the Netherlands the number of cash payments is declining. People rather use debit cards, as they provide them better services. Modern banknotes face a usage threat, instead of a new counterfeit threat.
Banknotes can be made more user-friendly by applying the Model for Use-centered Design of Payment Instruments or Upid-Model. This Model identifies four User Interface Functions (UIFs) and six User Experience Functions (UXFs), ranging from ‘recognising value’ (UIF 1) to ‘linking to information technology’ (UXF 6). How users perceive a banknote is essential knowledge to arrive at user-friendly banknotes. Various contributions are presented, including the 4M Model for the Perception of Banknotes. The Upid-Model offers a framework to map the opinion of the Dutch on the design of gulden and euro banknotes (period 1981-2017). Using the Upid-Model, a new design concept has been developed for a series of MAX-banknotes, Money of Area X. Finally, the Upid-Model proved to be applicable on other means of payments, like debit cards and wallet apps.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Tilburg University
  • Berndsen, Ron, Promotor
  • Pieters, Rik, Promotor
Award date7 Nov 2017
Place of PublicationTilburg
Print ISBNs978 90 5668 533 1
Publication statusPublished - 2017


Dive into the research topics of 'A model for use-centered design of payment instruments applied to banknotes: Upid-model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this