A re-evaluation of the Type D personality effect

P. Lodder*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
16 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Objective
Type D personality has been associated with various medical and psychosocial outcomes. Type D's underlying personality traits negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) are hypothesized to either additively (NA + SI) or synergistically (NA ∗ SI) affect an outcome. As some of the methods used to assess a Type D effect have been criticized in the past, this study aimed to investigate for all commonly used methods their tendency of producing false positive Type D effect.

Method
324,000 datasets were generated using a Monte Carlo Simulation. Each dataset was analyzed using various methods to assess a Type D effect. Each method's performance was assessed in terms of absolute bias and the percentage of false positive findings. An online application was developed where readers can easily experiment with this simulation.

Results
Our simulation showed that all commonly used methods risk producing false positive Type D effects. The only method with adequate false positive rates included the continuous NA and SI main effects, as well as their quadratic effects and their interaction.

Conclusion
All commonly used methods to assess a Type D personality effect showed inflated false positive rates in realistic simulation scenarios. All earlier research based only on these methods should be reconsidered.
Original languageEnglish
Article number110254
Number of pages9
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Volume167
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • ANXIETY
  • DISEASE
  • Dichotomization
  • EVENTS
  • HEALTH BEHAVIORS
  • Interaction
  • LIFE
  • MORTALITY
  • Monte Carlo Simulation
  • NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY
  • Quadratic
  • SOCIAL INHIBITION
  • Type D personality
  • VARIABLES

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