In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of political activism through an irruption of citizen movements – 5M or Occupy–, the birth of new political platforms –5 Stelle, Zyrisa, Podemos– and the rise of new direct action groups, such as Anonymous, Stop-Evictions Movements, cooperatives, to name just a few. In some countries this activism has not just placed substantial pressure on traditional actors of representative democracy and governments, but has also opened up opportunities for structural changes in the policymaking context and procedures (García Marzá, 2012).
Dekker, P., & Feenstra, R. A. (2015). Activism and civil society: Broadening participation and deepening democracy. Recerca-Revista de Pensament & Analisi, (17), 7-13. https://doi.org/10.6035/Recerca.2015.17.1