Adaptation and Latent Structure of the Swahili Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low Literacy Population in the Context of HIV

A. Abubakar, Raphael Birya Kalu, Khamis Katana, Beatrice Kabunda, Amin S. Hassan, Charles R. Newton, Fons Van de Vijver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Objective

We set out to adapt the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II in Kenya and examine its factorial structure.

Methods

In the first phase we carried out in-depth interviews involving 29 adult members of the community to elicit their understanding of depression and identify aspects of the BDI-II that required adaptation. In the second phase, a modified version of BDI-II was administered to 221 adults randomly selected from the community to allow for the evaluation of its psychometric properties. In the third phase of the study we evaluated the discriminative validity of BDI-11 by comparing a randomly chosen community sample (n = 29) with caregivers of adolescents affected by HIV (n = 77).

Results

A considerable overlap between the BDI symptoms and those generated in the interviews was observed. Relevant idioms and symptoms such as 'thinking too much' and 'Kuchoka moyo (having a tired heart)' were identified. The administration of the BDI had to be modified to make it suitable for the low literacy levels of our participants. Fit indices for several models (one factorial, two-factor model and a three factor model) were all within acceptable range. Evidence indicated that while multidimensional models could be fitted, the strong correlations between the factors implied that a single factor model may be the best suited solution (alpha [0.89], and a significant correlation with locally identified items [r = 0.51]) confirmed the good psychometric properties of the adapted BDI-II. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that somatization was more prevalent. Lastly, caregivers of HIV affected adolescents had significantly higher scores compared to adults randomly selected from the community F(1, 121) = 23.31, p <.001 indicating the discriminative validity of the adapted BDI = II.

Conclusions

With an adapted administration procedure, the BDI-II provides an adequate measure of depressive symptoms which can be used alongside other measures for proper diagnosis in a low literacy population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number0151030
Number of pages15
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume11
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jun 2016

Keywords

  • COMMON MENTAL-DISORDERS
  • SOUTH-AFRICA
  • LOW-INCOME
  • VALIDATION
  • CHILDREN
  • SYMPTOM
  • OUTPATIENTS
  • PREVALENCE
  • COMMUNITY
  • COUNTRIES

Cite this

Abubakar, A., Kalu, R. B., Katana, K., Kabunda, B., Hassan, A. S., Newton, C. R., & Van de Vijver, F. (2016). Adaptation and Latent Structure of the Swahili Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low Literacy Population in the Context of HIV. PLoS ONE, 11(6), [0151030]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151030
Abubakar, A. ; Kalu, Raphael Birya ; Katana, Khamis ; Kabunda, Beatrice ; Hassan, Amin S. ; Newton, Charles R. ; Van de Vijver, Fons. / Adaptation and Latent Structure of the Swahili Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low Literacy Population in the Context of HIV. In: PLoS ONE. 2016 ; Vol. 11, No. 6.
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abstract = "ObjectiveWe set out to adapt the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II in Kenya and examine its factorial structure.MethodsIn the first phase we carried out in-depth interviews involving 29 adult members of the community to elicit their understanding of depression and identify aspects of the BDI-II that required adaptation. In the second phase, a modified version of BDI-II was administered to 221 adults randomly selected from the community to allow for the evaluation of its psychometric properties. In the third phase of the study we evaluated the discriminative validity of BDI-11 by comparing a randomly chosen community sample (n = 29) with caregivers of adolescents affected by HIV (n = 77).ResultsA considerable overlap between the BDI symptoms and those generated in the interviews was observed. Relevant idioms and symptoms such as 'thinking too much' and 'Kuchoka moyo (having a tired heart)' were identified. The administration of the BDI had to be modified to make it suitable for the low literacy levels of our participants. Fit indices for several models (one factorial, two-factor model and a three factor model) were all within acceptable range. Evidence indicated that while multidimensional models could be fitted, the strong correlations between the factors implied that a single factor model may be the best suited solution (alpha [0.89], and a significant correlation with locally identified items [r = 0.51]) confirmed the good psychometric properties of the adapted BDI-II. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that somatization was more prevalent. Lastly, caregivers of HIV affected adolescents had significantly higher scores compared to adults randomly selected from the community F(1, 121) = 23.31, p <.001 indicating the discriminative validity of the adapted BDI = II.ConclusionsWith an adapted administration procedure, the BDI-II provides an adequate measure of depressive symptoms which can be used alongside other measures for proper diagnosis in a low literacy population.",
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Adaptation and Latent Structure of the Swahili Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low Literacy Population in the Context of HIV. / Abubakar, A.; Kalu, Raphael Birya; Katana, Khamis; Kabunda, Beatrice; Hassan, Amin S.; Newton, Charles R.; Van de Vijver, Fons.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 6, 0151030, 03.06.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Adaptation and Latent Structure of the Swahili Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low Literacy Population in the Context of HIV

AU - Abubakar, A.

AU - Kalu, Raphael Birya

AU - Katana, Khamis

AU - Kabunda, Beatrice

AU - Hassan, Amin S.

AU - Newton, Charles R.

AU - Van de Vijver, Fons

PY - 2016/6/3

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N2 - ObjectiveWe set out to adapt the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II in Kenya and examine its factorial structure.MethodsIn the first phase we carried out in-depth interviews involving 29 adult members of the community to elicit their understanding of depression and identify aspects of the BDI-II that required adaptation. In the second phase, a modified version of BDI-II was administered to 221 adults randomly selected from the community to allow for the evaluation of its psychometric properties. In the third phase of the study we evaluated the discriminative validity of BDI-11 by comparing a randomly chosen community sample (n = 29) with caregivers of adolescents affected by HIV (n = 77).ResultsA considerable overlap between the BDI symptoms and those generated in the interviews was observed. Relevant idioms and symptoms such as 'thinking too much' and 'Kuchoka moyo (having a tired heart)' were identified. The administration of the BDI had to be modified to make it suitable for the low literacy levels of our participants. Fit indices for several models (one factorial, two-factor model and a three factor model) were all within acceptable range. Evidence indicated that while multidimensional models could be fitted, the strong correlations between the factors implied that a single factor model may be the best suited solution (alpha [0.89], and a significant correlation with locally identified items [r = 0.51]) confirmed the good psychometric properties of the adapted BDI-II. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that somatization was more prevalent. Lastly, caregivers of HIV affected adolescents had significantly higher scores compared to adults randomly selected from the community F(1, 121) = 23.31, p <.001 indicating the discriminative validity of the adapted BDI = II.ConclusionsWith an adapted administration procedure, the BDI-II provides an adequate measure of depressive symptoms which can be used alongside other measures for proper diagnosis in a low literacy population.

AB - ObjectiveWe set out to adapt the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II in Kenya and examine its factorial structure.MethodsIn the first phase we carried out in-depth interviews involving 29 adult members of the community to elicit their understanding of depression and identify aspects of the BDI-II that required adaptation. In the second phase, a modified version of BDI-II was administered to 221 adults randomly selected from the community to allow for the evaluation of its psychometric properties. In the third phase of the study we evaluated the discriminative validity of BDI-11 by comparing a randomly chosen community sample (n = 29) with caregivers of adolescents affected by HIV (n = 77).ResultsA considerable overlap between the BDI symptoms and those generated in the interviews was observed. Relevant idioms and symptoms such as 'thinking too much' and 'Kuchoka moyo (having a tired heart)' were identified. The administration of the BDI had to be modified to make it suitable for the low literacy levels of our participants. Fit indices for several models (one factorial, two-factor model and a three factor model) were all within acceptable range. Evidence indicated that while multidimensional models could be fitted, the strong correlations between the factors implied that a single factor model may be the best suited solution (alpha [0.89], and a significant correlation with locally identified items [r = 0.51]) confirmed the good psychometric properties of the adapted BDI-II. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that somatization was more prevalent. Lastly, caregivers of HIV affected adolescents had significantly higher scores compared to adults randomly selected from the community F(1, 121) = 23.31, p <.001 indicating the discriminative validity of the adapted BDI = II.ConclusionsWith an adapted administration procedure, the BDI-II provides an adequate measure of depressive symptoms which can be used alongside other measures for proper diagnosis in a low literacy population.

KW - COMMON MENTAL-DISORDERS

KW - SOUTH-AFRICA

KW - LOW-INCOME

KW - VALIDATION

KW - CHILDREN

KW - SYMPTOM

KW - OUTPATIENTS

KW - PREVALENCE

KW - COMMUNITY

KW - COUNTRIES

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0151030

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0151030

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - PLoS ONE

JF - PLoS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 6

M1 - 0151030

ER -