Advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation in the skin is associated with depression

The Maastricht study

F.E.P. Van Dooren, F. Pouwer, C.G. Schalkwijk, S.J.S. Sep, C.D.A. Stehouwer, R.M.A. Henry, P.C. Dagnelie, N.C. Schaper, C.J.H. Van Der Kallen, A. Koster, J. Denollet, F.R.J. Verhey, M.T. Schram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background:
Depression is a highly prevalent disease with a high morbidity and mortality risk. Its pathophysiology is not entirely clear. However, type 2 diabetes is an important risk factor for depression. One mechanism that may explain this association may include the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We therefore investigated the association of AGEs with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. In addition, we examined whether the potential association was present for somatic and/or cognitive symptoms of
depression.
Methods:
Cross-sectional data were used from the Maastricht Study (N = 862, mean age 59.8 ± 8.5 years, 55% men). AGE accumulation was measured with skin autofluorescence (SAF) by use of the AGE Reader. Plasma levels of protein-bound pentosidine were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) were measured with ultraperformance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorder were assessed by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview.
Results:
Higher SAF was associated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.42, 95% CI 0.12–0.73, P =.007) and depressive disorder (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.95, P = .028) after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, smoking, BMI, and kidney function. Plasma pentosidine, CML, and CEL were not independently associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder.
Conclusions:
This study shows that AGE accumulation in the skin is ndependently associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. This association is present for both somatic and cognitive symptoms of depression. This might suggest that AGEs are involved in the development of depression.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-67
JournalDepression and Anxiety
Volume34
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017

Fingerprint

Advanced Glycosylation End Products
Depression
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Liquid Chromatography
Fluorescence
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Interviews
Kidney

Cite this

Van Dooren, F. E. P., Pouwer, F., Schalkwijk, C. G., Sep, S. J. S., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Henry, R. M. A., ... Schram, M. T. (2017). Advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation in the skin is associated with depression: The Maastricht study. Depression and Anxiety, 34(1), 59-67. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22527
Van Dooren, F.E.P. ; Pouwer, F. ; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Sep, S.J.S. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Henry, R.M.A. ; Dagnelie, P.C. ; Schaper, N.C. ; Van Der Kallen, C.J.H. ; Koster, A. ; Denollet, J. ; Verhey, F.R.J. ; Schram, M.T. / Advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation in the skin is associated with depression : The Maastricht study. In: Depression and Anxiety. 2017 ; Vol. 34, No. 1. pp. 59-67.
@article{56d6d50da21248c4801c13cf8d52fe75,
title = "Advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation in the skin is associated with depression: The Maastricht study",
abstract = "Background: Depression is a highly prevalent disease with a high morbidity and mortality risk. Its pathophysiology is not entirely clear. However, type 2 diabetes is an important risk factor for depression. One mechanism that may explain this association may include the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We therefore investigated the association of AGEs with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. In addition, we examined whether the potential association was present for somatic and/or cognitive symptoms ofdepression. Methods: Cross-sectional data were used from the Maastricht Study (N = 862, mean age 59.8 ± 8.5 years, 55{\%} men). AGE accumulation was measured with skin autofluorescence (SAF) by use of the AGE Reader. Plasma levels of protein-bound pentosidine were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) were measured with ultraperformance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorder were assessed by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: Higher SAF was associated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.42, 95{\%} CI 0.12–0.73, P =.007) and depressive disorder (OR = 1.42, 95{\%} CI 1.04–1.95, P = .028) after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, smoking, BMI, and kidney function. Plasma pentosidine, CML, and CEL were not independently associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. Conclusions: This study shows that AGE accumulation in the skin is ndependently associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. This association is present for both somatic and cognitive symptoms of depression. This might suggest that AGEs are involved in the development of depression.",
author = "{Van Dooren}, F.E.P. and F. Pouwer and C.G. Schalkwijk and S.J.S. Sep and C.D.A. Stehouwer and R.M.A. Henry and P.C. Dagnelie and N.C. Schaper and {Van Der Kallen}, C.J.H. and A. Koster and J. Denollet and F.R.J. Verhey and M.T. Schram",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/da.22527",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "59--67",
journal = "Depression and Anxiety",
issn = "1091-4269",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

Van Dooren, FEP, Pouwer, F, Schalkwijk, CG, Sep, SJS, Stehouwer, CDA, Henry, RMA, Dagnelie, PC, Schaper, NC, Van Der Kallen, CJH, Koster, A, Denollet, J, Verhey, FRJ & Schram, MT 2017, 'Advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation in the skin is associated with depression: The Maastricht study', Depression and Anxiety, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 59-67. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22527

Advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation in the skin is associated with depression : The Maastricht study. / Van Dooren, F.E.P.; Pouwer, F.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Sep, S.J.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Henry, R.M.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Schaper, N.C.; Van Der Kallen, C.J.H.; Koster, A.; Denollet, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Schram, M.T.

In: Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 34, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 59-67.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation in the skin is associated with depression

T2 - The Maastricht study

AU - Van Dooren, F.E.P.

AU - Pouwer, F.

AU - Schalkwijk, C.G.

AU - Sep, S.J.S.

AU - Stehouwer, C.D.A.

AU - Henry, R.M.A.

AU - Dagnelie, P.C.

AU - Schaper, N.C.

AU - Van Der Kallen, C.J.H.

AU - Koster, A.

AU - Denollet, J.

AU - Verhey, F.R.J.

AU - Schram, M.T.

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Background: Depression is a highly prevalent disease with a high morbidity and mortality risk. Its pathophysiology is not entirely clear. However, type 2 diabetes is an important risk factor for depression. One mechanism that may explain this association may include the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We therefore investigated the association of AGEs with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. In addition, we examined whether the potential association was present for somatic and/or cognitive symptoms ofdepression. Methods: Cross-sectional data were used from the Maastricht Study (N = 862, mean age 59.8 ± 8.5 years, 55% men). AGE accumulation was measured with skin autofluorescence (SAF) by use of the AGE Reader. Plasma levels of protein-bound pentosidine were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) were measured with ultraperformance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorder were assessed by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: Higher SAF was associated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.42, 95% CI 0.12–0.73, P =.007) and depressive disorder (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.95, P = .028) after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, smoking, BMI, and kidney function. Plasma pentosidine, CML, and CEL were not independently associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. Conclusions: This study shows that AGE accumulation in the skin is ndependently associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. This association is present for both somatic and cognitive symptoms of depression. This might suggest that AGEs are involved in the development of depression.

AB - Background: Depression is a highly prevalent disease with a high morbidity and mortality risk. Its pathophysiology is not entirely clear. However, type 2 diabetes is an important risk factor for depression. One mechanism that may explain this association may include the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We therefore investigated the association of AGEs with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. In addition, we examined whether the potential association was present for somatic and/or cognitive symptoms ofdepression. Methods: Cross-sectional data were used from the Maastricht Study (N = 862, mean age 59.8 ± 8.5 years, 55% men). AGE accumulation was measured with skin autofluorescence (SAF) by use of the AGE Reader. Plasma levels of protein-bound pentosidine were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) were measured with ultraperformance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorder were assessed by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: Higher SAF was associated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.42, 95% CI 0.12–0.73, P =.007) and depressive disorder (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.95, P = .028) after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, smoking, BMI, and kidney function. Plasma pentosidine, CML, and CEL were not independently associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. Conclusions: This study shows that AGE accumulation in the skin is ndependently associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. This association is present for both somatic and cognitive symptoms of depression. This might suggest that AGEs are involved in the development of depression.

U2 - 10.1002/da.22527

DO - 10.1002/da.22527

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 59

EP - 67

JO - Depression and Anxiety

JF - Depression and Anxiety

SN - 1091-4269

IS - 1

ER -