Affect, motivation, temptation, and drinking among alcohol-dependent outpatients trying to maintain abstinence

An ecological momentary assessment study

A.J. Waters*, T.M. Schoenmakers, M. Snelleman, E. Szeto, I.H.A. Franken, V.M. Hendriks, H. van de Mheen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Objectives:
Using Ecological Momentary Assessment we aimed to describe the time course of temptation episodes in alcohol-dependent outpatients in a real-life setting. We also examined whether affective and motivational variables were cross-sectionally and prospectively associated with temptation episodes. Additionally, we tested whether outpatients who drank against treatment goals (i.e., “lapsers”) differed in craving, affect, and motivation from abstainers.

Methods:
Participants were 43 alcohol-dependent outpatients (13 female). Using personal digital assistants (PDAs), patients were signaled to complete three random assessments per day for 4 weeks. They were also instructed to complete a temptation assessment whenever they experienced the temptation to drink alcohol.

Results:
The number of temptation assessments declined over time and did not differ between lapsers and abstainers. Overall, craving was generally higher in lapsers (n = 14) than abstainers (n = 27). In lapsers, but not abstainers, abstinence motivation was lower at temptation assessments vs. random assessments. Across all patients, negative affect was prospectively associated with entry of temptation assessments later the same day. There were no significant effects for positive affect.

Conclusions:
In alcohol-dependent outpatients attempting to remain abstinent, negative affect is cross-sectionally associated with entry of temptation assessments. There is more evidence that negative affect precipitates temptations than vice versa. Professionals should be watchful of outpatients who report generally high levels of craving, and who report more negative affect and lower abstinence motivation, when tempted.
Original languageEnglish
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2019

Fingerprint

Alcohol Drinking
Outpatients
Alcohols
Handheld Computers
Personal digital assistants
Precipitates
Ecological Momentary Assessment

Cite this

@article{f0f2b717d6cd463998eed9bbc5df8f49,
title = "Affect, motivation, temptation, and drinking among alcohol-dependent outpatients trying to maintain abstinence: An ecological momentary assessment study",
abstract = "Objectives: Using Ecological Momentary Assessment we aimed to describe the time course of temptation episodes in alcohol-dependent outpatients in a real-life setting. We also examined whether affective and motivational variables were cross-sectionally and prospectively associated with temptation episodes. Additionally, we tested whether outpatients who drank against treatment goals (i.e., “lapsers”) differed in craving, affect, and motivation from abstainers.Methods: Participants were 43 alcohol-dependent outpatients (13 female). Using personal digital assistants (PDAs), patients were signaled to complete three random assessments per day for 4 weeks. They were also instructed to complete a temptation assessment whenever they experienced the temptation to drink alcohol.Results: The number of temptation assessments declined over time and did not differ between lapsers and abstainers. Overall, craving was generally higher in lapsers (n = 14) than abstainers (n = 27). In lapsers, but not abstainers, abstinence motivation was lower at temptation assessments vs. random assessments. Across all patients, negative affect was prospectively associated with entry of temptation assessments later the same day. There were no significant effects for positive affect.Conclusions: In alcohol-dependent outpatients attempting to remain abstinent, negative affect is cross-sectionally associated with entry of temptation assessments. There is more evidence that negative affect precipitates temptations than vice versa. Professionals should be watchful of outpatients who report generally high levels of craving, and who report more negative affect and lower abstinence motivation, when tempted.",
author = "A.J. Waters and T.M. Schoenmakers and M. Snelleman and E. Szeto and I.H.A. Franken and V.M. Hendriks and {van de Mheen}, H.",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107626",
language = "English",
journal = "Drug and Alcohol Dependence",
issn = "0376-8716",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",

}

Affect, motivation, temptation, and drinking among alcohol-dependent outpatients trying to maintain abstinence : An ecological momentary assessment study. / Waters, A.J.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Snelleman, M.; Szeto, E.; Franken, I.H.A. ; Hendriks, V.M.; van de Mheen, H.

In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Affect, motivation, temptation, and drinking among alcohol-dependent outpatients trying to maintain abstinence

T2 - An ecological momentary assessment study

AU - Waters, A.J.

AU - Schoenmakers, T.M.

AU - Snelleman, M.

AU - Szeto, E.

AU - Franken, I.H.A.

AU - Hendriks, V.M.

AU - van de Mheen, H.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Objectives: Using Ecological Momentary Assessment we aimed to describe the time course of temptation episodes in alcohol-dependent outpatients in a real-life setting. We also examined whether affective and motivational variables were cross-sectionally and prospectively associated with temptation episodes. Additionally, we tested whether outpatients who drank against treatment goals (i.e., “lapsers”) differed in craving, affect, and motivation from abstainers.Methods: Participants were 43 alcohol-dependent outpatients (13 female). Using personal digital assistants (PDAs), patients were signaled to complete three random assessments per day for 4 weeks. They were also instructed to complete a temptation assessment whenever they experienced the temptation to drink alcohol.Results: The number of temptation assessments declined over time and did not differ between lapsers and abstainers. Overall, craving was generally higher in lapsers (n = 14) than abstainers (n = 27). In lapsers, but not abstainers, abstinence motivation was lower at temptation assessments vs. random assessments. Across all patients, negative affect was prospectively associated with entry of temptation assessments later the same day. There were no significant effects for positive affect.Conclusions: In alcohol-dependent outpatients attempting to remain abstinent, negative affect is cross-sectionally associated with entry of temptation assessments. There is more evidence that negative affect precipitates temptations than vice versa. Professionals should be watchful of outpatients who report generally high levels of craving, and who report more negative affect and lower abstinence motivation, when tempted.

AB - Objectives: Using Ecological Momentary Assessment we aimed to describe the time course of temptation episodes in alcohol-dependent outpatients in a real-life setting. We also examined whether affective and motivational variables were cross-sectionally and prospectively associated with temptation episodes. Additionally, we tested whether outpatients who drank against treatment goals (i.e., “lapsers”) differed in craving, affect, and motivation from abstainers.Methods: Participants were 43 alcohol-dependent outpatients (13 female). Using personal digital assistants (PDAs), patients were signaled to complete three random assessments per day for 4 weeks. They were also instructed to complete a temptation assessment whenever they experienced the temptation to drink alcohol.Results: The number of temptation assessments declined over time and did not differ between lapsers and abstainers. Overall, craving was generally higher in lapsers (n = 14) than abstainers (n = 27). In lapsers, but not abstainers, abstinence motivation was lower at temptation assessments vs. random assessments. Across all patients, negative affect was prospectively associated with entry of temptation assessments later the same day. There were no significant effects for positive affect.Conclusions: In alcohol-dependent outpatients attempting to remain abstinent, negative affect is cross-sectionally associated with entry of temptation assessments. There is more evidence that negative affect precipitates temptations than vice versa. Professionals should be watchful of outpatients who report generally high levels of craving, and who report more negative affect and lower abstinence motivation, when tempted.

U2 - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107626

DO - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107626

M3 - Article

JO - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

JF - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

SN - 0376-8716

ER -