Age-related differences in the effect of psychological distress on mortality: Type D personality in younger versus older patients with cardiac arrhythmias

J. Denollet, F.B. Tekle, P.H. van der Voort, M. Alings, K.C. van den Broek

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Abstract

Background.
Mixed findings in biobehavioral research on heart disease may partly be attributed to age-related differences in the prognostic value of psychological distress. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Type D (distressed) personality contributes to an increased mortality risk following implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) treatment in younger patients but not in older patients.
Methods.
The Type D Scale (DS14) was used to assess general psychological distress in 455 younger (≤70 y, ) and 134 older (>70 y, ) ICD patients. End points were all-cause mortality and cardiac death after a median follow-up of 3.2 years. Results. Older patients had more advanced heart failure and a higher mortality rate ( %) than younger patients ( %), . Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), but not Type D personality, was associated with increased mortality in older patients. Among younger patients, however, Type D personality was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio = 1.91 (95% CI 1.09–3.34) and 2.26 (95% CI 1.16–4.41) for all-cause and cardiac mortality; other predictors were increasing age, CRT, appropriate shocks, ACE-inhibitors, and smoking.
Conclusion.
Type D personality was independently associated with all-cause and cardiac mortality in younger ICD patients but not in older patients. Cardiovascular research needs to further explore age-related differences in psychosocial risk.
Original languageEnglish
Article number246035
JournalBioMed Research International
Volume2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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