Ambivalence over expression of anger and sadness mediates gender differences in depressive symptoms

L.E. Kunst*, J. de Groot, A.J.W. van der Does

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

The gender difference in the prevalence of depression is well-documented, poorly understood and multifactorial. Considering that gender differences exist in the expression of emotions, we hypothesized that ambivalence over the expression of sadness and anger contributes to the difference in depression scores between men and women. Questionnaires on depressive symptoms and ambivalence regarding sadness and anger expression were completed by 550 respondents (66.9% women, average age 27.8 years). Women reported more depressive symptoms and were more ambivalent over the expression of both sadness and anger than men. Ambivalence over sadness and—to a lesser extent—anger mediated the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We conclude that ambivalence over emotion expression may partly explain why depression occurs more frequently in women than men.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-373
JournalCognitive Therapy and Research
Volume43
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Depression
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • ALEXITHYMIA
  • Ambivalence over emotional expression
  • Anger
  • BOOTSTRAP
  • CHILDHOOD
  • CONFLICT
  • Depression
  • EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION
  • Emotional expressiveness
  • Gender
  • MODELS
  • Sadness
  • Sex

Cite this

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title = "Ambivalence over expression of anger and sadness mediates gender differences in depressive symptoms",
abstract = "The gender difference in the prevalence of depression is well-documented, poorly understood and multifactorial. Considering that gender differences exist in the expression of emotions, we hypothesized that ambivalence over the expression of sadness and anger contributes to the difference in depression scores between men and women. Questionnaires on depressive symptoms and ambivalence regarding sadness and anger expression were completed by 550 respondents (66.9{\%} women, average age 27.8 years). Women reported more depressive symptoms and were more ambivalent over the expression of both sadness and anger than men. Ambivalence over sadness and—to a lesser extent—anger mediated the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We conclude that ambivalence over emotion expression may partly explain why depression occurs more frequently in women than men.",
keywords = "ALEXITHYMIA, Ambivalence over emotional expression, Anger, BOOTSTRAP, CHILDHOOD, CONFLICT, Depression, EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION, Emotional expressiveness, Gender, MODELS, Sadness, Sex",
author = "L.E. Kunst and {de Groot}, J. and {van der Does}, A.J.W.",
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language = "English",
volume = "43",
pages = "365--373",
journal = "Cognitive Therapy and Research",
issn = "0147-5916",
publisher = "Springer New York",
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Ambivalence over expression of anger and sadness mediates gender differences in depressive symptoms. / Kunst, L.E.; de Groot, J.; van der Does, A.J.W.

In: Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2019, p. 365-373.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Kunst, L.E.

AU - de Groot, J.

AU - van der Does, A.J.W.

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N2 - The gender difference in the prevalence of depression is well-documented, poorly understood and multifactorial. Considering that gender differences exist in the expression of emotions, we hypothesized that ambivalence over the expression of sadness and anger contributes to the difference in depression scores between men and women. Questionnaires on depressive symptoms and ambivalence regarding sadness and anger expression were completed by 550 respondents (66.9% women, average age 27.8 years). Women reported more depressive symptoms and were more ambivalent over the expression of both sadness and anger than men. Ambivalence over sadness and—to a lesser extent—anger mediated the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We conclude that ambivalence over emotion expression may partly explain why depression occurs more frequently in women than men.

AB - The gender difference in the prevalence of depression is well-documented, poorly understood and multifactorial. Considering that gender differences exist in the expression of emotions, we hypothesized that ambivalence over the expression of sadness and anger contributes to the difference in depression scores between men and women. Questionnaires on depressive symptoms and ambivalence regarding sadness and anger expression were completed by 550 respondents (66.9% women, average age 27.8 years). Women reported more depressive symptoms and were more ambivalent over the expression of both sadness and anger than men. Ambivalence over sadness and—to a lesser extent—anger mediated the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We conclude that ambivalence over emotion expression may partly explain why depression occurs more frequently in women than men.

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KW - Ambivalence over emotional expression

KW - Anger

KW - BOOTSTRAP

KW - CHILDHOOD

KW - CONFLICT

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KW - EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION

KW - Emotional expressiveness

KW - Gender

KW - MODELS

KW - Sadness

KW - Sex

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