Association between high levels of comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms and decreased likelihood of birth without intervention: A longitudinal prospective cohort study

L. Hulsbosch*, M.G.B.M. Boekhorst, P. Lodder, E.S. Potharst, I. Nyklicek, V. Bergink, S.G. Oei, C.J.M. Verhoeven, V.J.M. Pop

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Objective
To assess the association between trajectories of comorbid anxiety and depressive (CAD) symptoms assessed in each pregnancy trimester and physiological birth.

Design
Large longitudinal prospective cohort study with recruitment between January 2013 and September 2014.

Setting
Primary care, in the Netherlands.

Population
Dutch-speaking pregnant women with gestational age at birth ≥37 weeks, and without multiple pregnancy, severe psychiatric disorder or chronic disease history.

Methods
Pregnancy-specific anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured prospectively in each trimester of pregnancy using the negative affect subscale of the Tilburg Pregnancy Distress Scale and Edinburgh (Postnatal) Depression Scale. Data on physiological birth were obtained from obstetric records. Multivariate growth mixture modelling was performed in MPLUS to determine longitudinal trajectories of CAD symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between trajectories and physiological birth.

Main outcome measures
Trajectories of CAD symptoms and physiological birth.

Results
Seven trajectories (classes) of CAD symptoms were identified in 1682 women and subsequently merged into three groups: group 1—persistently low levels of symptoms (reference class 1; 79.0%), group 2—intermittently high levels of symptoms (classes 3, 6 and 7; 11.2%), and group 3—persistently high levels of symptoms (classes 2, 4 and 5; 9.8%). Persistently high levels of CAD symptoms (group 3) were associated with a lower likelihood of physiological birth (odds ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.47–0.95, P = 0.027) compared with the reference group (persistently low levels of symptoms), after adjusting for confounders.

Conclusions
This study is the first showing evidence that persistently high CAD levels, assessed in each pregnancy trimester, are associated with a lower likelihood of physiological birth.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)495-505
JournalBJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Volume130
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • CHILDBIRTH
  • EXPERIENCE
  • MATERNAL DEPRESSION
  • MINDFULNESS
  • POSTNATAL DEPRESSION
  • POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION
  • POSTTRAUMATIC-STRESS-DISORDER
  • PREGNANCY
  • PREVALENCE
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • anxiety
  • caesarean
  • comorbid anxiety and depression
  • depression
  • forceps
  • instrumental birth
  • multivariate growth mixture modelling
  • physiological birth
  • pregnancy distress
  • trajectories
  • ventouse

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