Associations between exploratory dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes: A federated meta-analysis of individual participant data from 25 cohort studies

Franziska Jannasch*, Stefan Dietrich, Tom R. P. Bishop, Matthew Pearce, Anouar Fanidi, Gráinne O’Donoghue, Donal O’Gorman, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Peter Vollenweider, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Liisa Byberg, Alicja Wolk, Maryam Hashemian, Reza Malekzadeh, Hossein Poustchi, Vivian C. Luft, Sheila M. Alvim De Matos, Jihye Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Yeonjung KimDalia Stern, Martin Lajous, Dianna J. Magliano, Jonathan E. Shaw, Tasnime Akbaraly, Mika Kivimaki, Gertraud Maskarinec, Loïc Le Marchand, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Sabita S. Soedamah-Muthu, Nicholas J. Wareham, Nita G. Forouhi, Matthias B. Schulze

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
18 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Purpose
In several studies, exploratory dietary patterns (DP), derived by principal component analysis, were inversely or positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, findings remained study-specific, inconsistent and rarely replicated. This study aimed to investigate the associations between DPs and T2D in multiple cohorts across the world.

Methods
This federated meta-analysis of individual participant data was based on 25 prospective cohort studies from 5 continents including a total of 390,664 participants with a follow-up for T2D (3.8–25.0 years). After data harmonization across cohorts we evaluated 15 previously identified T2D-related DPs for association with incident T2D estimating pooled incidence rate ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) by Piecewise Poisson regression and random-effects meta-analysis.

Results
29,386 participants developed T2D during follow-up. Five DPs, characterized by higher intake of red meat, processed meat, French fries and refined grains, were associated with higher incidence of T2D. The strongest association was observed for a DP comprising these food groups besides others (IRRpooled per 1 SD = 1.104, 95% CI 1.059–1.151). Although heterogeneity was present (I2 = 85%), IRR exceeded 1 in 18 of the 20 meta-analyzed studies. Original DPs associated with lower T2D risk were not confirmed. Instead, a healthy DP (HDP1) was associated with higher T2D risk (IRRpooled per 1 SD = 1.057, 95% CI 1.027–1.088).

Conclusion
Our findings from various cohorts revealed positive associations for several DPs, characterized by higher intake of red meat, processed meat, French fries and refined grains, adding to the evidence-base that links DPs to higher T2D risk. However, no inverse DP–T2D associations were confirmed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3649-3667
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume61
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • ATHEROSCLEROSIS
  • BLOOD-PRESSURE
  • CONSUMPTION
  • DESIGN
  • Dietary patterns
  • Exploratory
  • Federated meta-analysis
  • HEALTH
  • LIFE-STYLE
  • OBJECTIVES
  • POPULATION
  • PROFILE
  • RISK
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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