Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression: The Maastricht study

F.E.P. van Dooren, M.T. Schram, C.G. Schalkwijk, C.D. Stehouwer, R.M. Henry, P.C. Dagnelie, N.C. Schaper, C. J. van der Kallen, A. Koster, S. J. Sep, J. Denollet, F.R.J. Verhey, F. Pouwer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background
The pathogenesis of depression may involve low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the independent associations of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder, and the role of lifestyle factors in this association.
Methods
In The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (n = 852, 55% men, m = 59.8 ± 8.5 years), depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and (major and minor) depressive disorder with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Plasma biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP, SAA, sICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, vWF) were measured with sandwich immunoassays and combined into two standardized sum scores.
Results
Biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP, TNF-α, SAA, sICAM-1) and endothelial dysfunction (sICAM-1, sE-Selectin) were univariately associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. The sum scores of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were associated with depressive disorder after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, kidney function and prior cardiovascular disease (OR 1.54, p = 0.001 and 1.40, p = 0.006). Both sum scores remained significantly associated with depressive disorder after additional adjustment for lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index. The sum score of inflammation was also independently associated with depressive symptoms, while the sum score of endothelial dysfunction was not.
Conclusions
Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are both associated with depressive disorder, independent of lifestyle factors. Our results might suggest that inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are involved in depression.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)390–396
JournalBrain, Behavior, and Immunity: An international journal
Volume56
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Depression
Major Depressive Disorder
Interleukin-8
Immunoassay
Alcohol Drinking
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Interleukin-6
Body Mass Index
Interviews
Kidney

Cite this

van Dooren, F. E. P., Schram, M. T., Schalkwijk, C. G., Stehouwer, C. D., Henry, R. M., Dagnelie, P. C., ... Pouwer, F. (2016). Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression: The Maastricht study. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: An international journal, 56, 390–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2016.03.004
van Dooren, F.E.P. ; Schram, M.T. ; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Stehouwer, C.D. ; Henry, R.M. ; Dagnelie, P.C. ; Schaper, N.C. ; van der Kallen, C. J. ; Koster, A. ; Sep, S. J. ; Denollet, J. ; Verhey, F.R.J. ; Pouwer, F. / Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression : The Maastricht study. In: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: An international journal. 2016 ; Vol. 56. pp. 390–396.
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title = "Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression: The Maastricht study",
abstract = "BackgroundThe pathogenesis of depression may involve low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the independent associations of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder, and the role of lifestyle factors in this association.MethodsIn The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (n = 852, 55{\%} men, m = 59.8 ± 8.5 years), depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and (major and minor) depressive disorder with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Plasma biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP, SAA, sICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, vWF) were measured with sandwich immunoassays and combined into two standardized sum scores.ResultsBiomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP, TNF-α, SAA, sICAM-1) and endothelial dysfunction (sICAM-1, sE-Selectin) were univariately associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. The sum scores of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were associated with depressive disorder after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, kidney function and prior cardiovascular disease (OR 1.54, p = 0.001 and 1.40, p = 0.006). Both sum scores remained significantly associated with depressive disorder after additional adjustment for lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index. The sum score of inflammation was also independently associated with depressive symptoms, while the sum score of endothelial dysfunction was not.ConclusionsInflammation and endothelial dysfunction are both associated with depressive disorder, independent of lifestyle factors. Our results might suggest that inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are involved in depression.",
author = "{van Dooren}, F.E.P. and M.T. Schram and C.G. Schalkwijk and C.D. Stehouwer and R.M. Henry and P.C. Dagnelie and N.C. Schaper and {van der Kallen}, {C. J.} and A. Koster and Sep, {S. J.} and J. Denollet and F.R.J. Verhey and F. Pouwer",
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van Dooren, FEP, Schram, MT, Schalkwijk, CG, Stehouwer, CD, Henry, RM, Dagnelie, PC, Schaper, NC, van der Kallen, CJ, Koster, A, Sep, SJ, Denollet, J, Verhey, FRJ & Pouwer, F 2016, 'Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression: The Maastricht study' Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: An international journal, vol. 56, pp. 390–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2016.03.004

Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression : The Maastricht study. / van Dooren, F.E.P.; Schram, M.T.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Henry, R.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Schaper, N.C.; van der Kallen, C. J.; Koster, A.; Sep, S. J.; Denollet, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Pouwer, F.

In: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: An international journal, Vol. 56, 2016, p. 390–396.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression

T2 - The Maastricht study

AU - van Dooren, F.E.P.

AU - Schram, M.T.

AU - Schalkwijk, C.G.

AU - Stehouwer, C.D.

AU - Henry, R.M.

AU - Dagnelie, P.C.

AU - Schaper, N.C.

AU - van der Kallen, C. J.

AU - Koster, A.

AU - Sep, S. J.

AU - Denollet, J.

AU - Verhey, F.R.J.

AU - Pouwer, F.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - BackgroundThe pathogenesis of depression may involve low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the independent associations of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder, and the role of lifestyle factors in this association.MethodsIn The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (n = 852, 55% men, m = 59.8 ± 8.5 years), depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and (major and minor) depressive disorder with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Plasma biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP, SAA, sICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, vWF) were measured with sandwich immunoassays and combined into two standardized sum scores.ResultsBiomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP, TNF-α, SAA, sICAM-1) and endothelial dysfunction (sICAM-1, sE-Selectin) were univariately associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. The sum scores of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were associated with depressive disorder after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, kidney function and prior cardiovascular disease (OR 1.54, p = 0.001 and 1.40, p = 0.006). Both sum scores remained significantly associated with depressive disorder after additional adjustment for lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index. The sum score of inflammation was also independently associated with depressive symptoms, while the sum score of endothelial dysfunction was not.ConclusionsInflammation and endothelial dysfunction are both associated with depressive disorder, independent of lifestyle factors. Our results might suggest that inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are involved in depression.

AB - BackgroundThe pathogenesis of depression may involve low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the independent associations of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder, and the role of lifestyle factors in this association.MethodsIn The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (n = 852, 55% men, m = 59.8 ± 8.5 years), depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and (major and minor) depressive disorder with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Plasma biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP, SAA, sICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, vWF) were measured with sandwich immunoassays and combined into two standardized sum scores.ResultsBiomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP, TNF-α, SAA, sICAM-1) and endothelial dysfunction (sICAM-1, sE-Selectin) were univariately associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. The sum scores of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were associated with depressive disorder after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, kidney function and prior cardiovascular disease (OR 1.54, p = 0.001 and 1.40, p = 0.006). Both sum scores remained significantly associated with depressive disorder after additional adjustment for lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index. The sum score of inflammation was also independently associated with depressive symptoms, while the sum score of endothelial dysfunction was not.ConclusionsInflammation and endothelial dysfunction are both associated with depressive disorder, independent of lifestyle factors. Our results might suggest that inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are involved in depression.

U2 - 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.03.004

DO - 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.03.004

M3 - Article

VL - 56

SP - 390

EP - 396

JO - Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: An international journal

JF - Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: An international journal

SN - 0889-1591

ER -