Brands in virtual reality games: Affective processes within computer-mediated consumer experiences

Zeph M.C. van Berlo*, Eva A. van Reijmersdal, Edith G. Smit, L. Nynke van der Laan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Virtual reality (VR) marketing is here to stay—or at least that is what is generally believed. Head-mounted display (HMD) VR hardware is rapidly becoming more accessible to the general public, and businesses have started adopting VR as an experiential marketing platform. In this study, we examine two affective mechanisms that play a role in the workings of branded VR games in an HMD VR context: (1) virtual product appeal and (2) emotional response. We conducted a between-subjects (branded VR game vs. non-branded VR game) lab experiment (N = 81) among young adults who were recruited via the university's lab recruitment system. During the experiment, participants used HTC Vive hardware with hand-held controllers. The results show that virtual product appeal strengthens the effect of brands in VR games on brand attitude. Moreover, brands in VR games elicit emotional responses, which subsequently drive brand attitude and purchase intention.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)458-465
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Business Research
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Brand engagement
  • Consumer learning
  • Emotional response
  • Head-mounted display (HMD)
  • Virtual reality (VR)


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