Diabetes mellitus comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that have one common feature: abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. The most common form is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NlDDM); about 80-90% of all diabetic patients has NlDDM. Other forms of diabetes are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (lDDM) and gestational diabetes. • In 1985, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined new criteria for diabetes mellitus based upon the oral glucose tolerance test (OGIT). During the OGIT test the fasting glucose level is measured, followed by the measurement of the glucose level, 2 hours after an intake of 75 g glucose. Depending on whether the glucose levels have been measured in the blood, plasma or serum, cut-off values have been defined. Three diagnoses can be made: normal glUcose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes mellitus. The OGIT is often used in epidemiological research. However, in clinical practice, the diagnosis diabetes is usually based on the presence of the classic symptoms of diabetes (polyuria, hunger, thirst, weight loss, tiredness) combined with a single abnormal blood glucose level, or on two abnormal levels without complaints measured on different occasions.
|Publication status||Published - 1999|