Cognitive structure of emotion terms in Indonesia and The Netherlands

R.J. Fontaine, Y.H. Poortinga, B. Setiadi, S.S. Markam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


We investigated the cognitive structure of emotions in Indonesia and The Netherlands in a series of three studies. Sets of 120 emotion terms were selected based on local ratings of prototypicality for "emotion". With similarity sortings a three-dimensional (evaluation, arousal, dominance) and a four-cluster (positive emotion, sadness, fear, anger) structure was found in each group. Of 50 pairs of translation-equivalent terms, 42 pairs were also found to be cognitively equivalent. With these equivalent terms a good fit of a common cognitive emotion structure was demonstrated in both countries. In a fourth and final study, the location of two social emotions, "shame" and "guilt", in the common structure was found to be closer to "fear" and somewhat further away from "anger" in Indonesia than in the Netherlands.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-86
JournalCognition and Emotion
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2002

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