This study investigated whether Dutch and Norwegian parents differ in their perceptions on parental measures and how parents view governmental responsibility to prevent adolescents from substance use. Data were derived from a cross-sectional internet survey conducted in the Netherlands and Norway. A subsample of Dutch (n = 2017) and Norwegian parents (n = 844) was selected. Parents were asked about their perceptions on different parental measures in relation to substance use, e.g. setting the right example, setting rules, parental behavior in the presence of adolescents, and how they view governmental responsibility compared with parental responsibility in relation to substance use among adolescents. The parental responsibility for taking parental measures against adolescents’ substance use was emphasized by both the Dutch and Norwegian parents. Compared to Dutch parents, Norwegian parents were slightly more positive about taking parental measures. Dutch frequent and heavy drinkers and Norwegian men were the most negative about parental perceptions on alcohol measures. Regarding perceptions on parental measures on drug use, Dutch and Norwegian lifetime cannabis users and current cannabis users supported parental measures to a lesser extent. Overall, the results suggest that both Dutch and Norwegian parents feel the responsibility to provide measures to prevent children from alcohol and drug use, irrespective of the alcohol and drug policy in their own country. Both the Dutch and Norwegian supported parental measures to prevent adolescents from substance use.