Contextualized bilingualism among adolescents from four different ethnic groups in Indonesia

Betty Tjipta Sari*, Fons van de Vijver, Atha Chasiotis, Michael Bender

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Aims and objectives:
We were interested in group differences in Indonesia in bilingualism, whether vocabulary knowledge shows a differential pattern across the languages, and whether language skill and usage differences between groups are moderated by contextual factors, such as ethnic group size.

Data and analysis:
We examined group differences in language usage at home and in public, self-reported proficiency, and vocabulary scores in both languages among 632 adolescents (292 males, Mage = 14.57 years) from four ethnic groups in Indonesia (214 Javanese, 115 Batak Toba, 108 Toraja, and 195 Chinese). Differential item functioning analysis was conducted to test whether adolescents had different vocabulary they only know in one language, which would indicate equality or inequality in access to knowledge in the two languages.

Findings:
There were large differences in language knowledge and usage. The lowest scores in ethnic language vocabulary and usage were found among the Chinese group. Across groups, scores for Bahasa Indonesia (L2) vocabulary were higher than ethnic language (L1) vocabulary. However, the ranking from easy to difficult words was similar across the languages and there were no specific sets of items that were differentially known in any language.

Implication:
Despite the differences in bilingualism skill and usage, all groups have similar access to different domains of the languages, and L2 (Bahasa Indonesia) seems to have become the dominant language in all groups. Our findings also imply that bilingualism comprises various domains, including language skill, self-reported proficiency, and self-reported usage, and that the associations between these components are not very strong.

Originality:
We investigated bilingualism among non-immigrant adolescents in an under-researched, non-WEIRD (western, educated, industrialized, rich, democratic) society. The study shows the role of language usage and skill that is different from a western context in various aspects, such as the dominance of L2 in all groups.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1469-1482
JournalInternational Journal of Bilingualism
Volume23
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Fingerprint

multilingualism
Indonesia
ethnic group
adolescent
language
vocabulary
Group
language usage
Bilingualism
Language
Ethnic Groups
item analysis
group size
ranking
equality
Vocabulary

Keywords

  • AGE
  • Bilingualism
  • DOMINANCE
  • Indonesia
  • Picture Naming Test
  • adolescents
  • item bias

Cite this

@article{39d691bd55f94b7ca566821112dceda3,
title = "Contextualized bilingualism among adolescents from four different ethnic groups in Indonesia",
abstract = "Aims and objectives:We were interested in group differences in Indonesia in bilingualism, whether vocabulary knowledge shows a differential pattern across the languages, and whether language skill and usage differences between groups are moderated by contextual factors, such as ethnic group size.Data and analysis:We examined group differences in language usage at home and in public, self-reported proficiency, and vocabulary scores in both languages among 632 adolescents (292 males, Mage = 14.57 years) from four ethnic groups in Indonesia (214 Javanese, 115 Batak Toba, 108 Toraja, and 195 Chinese). Differential item functioning analysis was conducted to test whether adolescents had different vocabulary they only know in one language, which would indicate equality or inequality in access to knowledge in the two languages.Findings:There were large differences in language knowledge and usage. The lowest scores in ethnic language vocabulary and usage were found among the Chinese group. Across groups, scores for Bahasa Indonesia (L2) vocabulary were higher than ethnic language (L1) vocabulary. However, the ranking from easy to difficult words was similar across the languages and there were no specific sets of items that were differentially known in any language.Implication:Despite the differences in bilingualism skill and usage, all groups have similar access to different domains of the languages, and L2 (Bahasa Indonesia) seems to have become the dominant language in all groups. Our findings also imply that bilingualism comprises various domains, including language skill, self-reported proficiency, and self-reported usage, and that the associations between these components are not very strong.Originality:We investigated bilingualism among non-immigrant adolescents in an under-researched, non-WEIRD (western, educated, industrialized, rich, democratic) society. The study shows the role of language usage and skill that is different from a western context in various aspects, such as the dominance of L2 in all groups.",
keywords = "AGE, Bilingualism, DOMINANCE, Indonesia, Picture Naming Test, adolescents, item bias",
author = "{Tjipta Sari}, Betty and {van de Vijver}, Fons and Atha Chasiotis and Michael Bender",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1177/1367006918803678",
language = "English",
volume = "23",
pages = "1469--1482",
journal = "International Journal of Bilingualism",
issn = "1367-0069",
publisher = "Sage Publications Ltd",
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}

Contextualized bilingualism among adolescents from four different ethnic groups in Indonesia. / Tjipta Sari, Betty; van de Vijver, Fons; Chasiotis, Atha; Bender, Michael.

In: International Journal of Bilingualism, Vol. 23, No. 6, 2019, p. 1469-1482.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Contextualized bilingualism among adolescents from four different ethnic groups in Indonesia

AU - Tjipta Sari, Betty

AU - van de Vijver, Fons

AU - Chasiotis, Atha

AU - Bender, Michael

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Aims and objectives:We were interested in group differences in Indonesia in bilingualism, whether vocabulary knowledge shows a differential pattern across the languages, and whether language skill and usage differences between groups are moderated by contextual factors, such as ethnic group size.Data and analysis:We examined group differences in language usage at home and in public, self-reported proficiency, and vocabulary scores in both languages among 632 adolescents (292 males, Mage = 14.57 years) from four ethnic groups in Indonesia (214 Javanese, 115 Batak Toba, 108 Toraja, and 195 Chinese). Differential item functioning analysis was conducted to test whether adolescents had different vocabulary they only know in one language, which would indicate equality or inequality in access to knowledge in the two languages.Findings:There were large differences in language knowledge and usage. The lowest scores in ethnic language vocabulary and usage were found among the Chinese group. Across groups, scores for Bahasa Indonesia (L2) vocabulary were higher than ethnic language (L1) vocabulary. However, the ranking from easy to difficult words was similar across the languages and there were no specific sets of items that were differentially known in any language.Implication:Despite the differences in bilingualism skill and usage, all groups have similar access to different domains of the languages, and L2 (Bahasa Indonesia) seems to have become the dominant language in all groups. Our findings also imply that bilingualism comprises various domains, including language skill, self-reported proficiency, and self-reported usage, and that the associations between these components are not very strong.Originality:We investigated bilingualism among non-immigrant adolescents in an under-researched, non-WEIRD (western, educated, industrialized, rich, democratic) society. The study shows the role of language usage and skill that is different from a western context in various aspects, such as the dominance of L2 in all groups.

AB - Aims and objectives:We were interested in group differences in Indonesia in bilingualism, whether vocabulary knowledge shows a differential pattern across the languages, and whether language skill and usage differences between groups are moderated by contextual factors, such as ethnic group size.Data and analysis:We examined group differences in language usage at home and in public, self-reported proficiency, and vocabulary scores in both languages among 632 adolescents (292 males, Mage = 14.57 years) from four ethnic groups in Indonesia (214 Javanese, 115 Batak Toba, 108 Toraja, and 195 Chinese). Differential item functioning analysis was conducted to test whether adolescents had different vocabulary they only know in one language, which would indicate equality or inequality in access to knowledge in the two languages.Findings:There were large differences in language knowledge and usage. The lowest scores in ethnic language vocabulary and usage were found among the Chinese group. Across groups, scores for Bahasa Indonesia (L2) vocabulary were higher than ethnic language (L1) vocabulary. However, the ranking from easy to difficult words was similar across the languages and there were no specific sets of items that were differentially known in any language.Implication:Despite the differences in bilingualism skill and usage, all groups have similar access to different domains of the languages, and L2 (Bahasa Indonesia) seems to have become the dominant language in all groups. Our findings also imply that bilingualism comprises various domains, including language skill, self-reported proficiency, and self-reported usage, and that the associations between these components are not very strong.Originality:We investigated bilingualism among non-immigrant adolescents in an under-researched, non-WEIRD (western, educated, industrialized, rich, democratic) society. The study shows the role of language usage and skill that is different from a western context in various aspects, such as the dominance of L2 in all groups.

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KW - Bilingualism

KW - DOMINANCE

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KW - Picture Naming Test

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KW - item bias

U2 - 10.1177/1367006918803678

DO - 10.1177/1367006918803678

M3 - Article

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JO - International Journal of Bilingualism

JF - International Journal of Bilingualism

SN - 1367-0069

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