Cross-cultural analysis of Type D (distressed) personality in 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease: A study from the International HeartQoL Project

N. Kupper, S.S. Pedersen, S. Höfer, H. Saner, N. Oldridge, J. Denollet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)
300 Downloads (Pure)


Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet in a direct comparison of countries.
To examine the cross-cultural validity of the Type D construct and its relation with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac symptom severity, and depression/anxiety.
In 22 countries, 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease (angina, 33%; myocardial infarction, 37%; or heart failure, 30%) completed the DS14 as part of the International HeartQoL Project.ResultsType D personality was assessed reliably across countries (αNA > .80; αSI > .74; except Russia, which was excluded from further analysis). Cross-cultural measurement equivalence was established for Type D personality at all measurement levels, as the factor-item configuration, factor loadings, and error structure were not different across countries (fit: CFI = .91; NFI = .88; RMSEA = .018), as well as across gender and diagnostic subgroups. Type D personality was more prevalent in Southern (37%) and Eastern (35%) European countries compared to Northern (24%) and Western European and English-speaking (both 27%) countries (p < .001). Type D was not confounded by cardiac symptom severity, but was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and depression.
Cross-cultural measurement equivalence was demonstrated for the Type D scale in 21 countries. There is a pan-cultural relationship between Type D personality and some cardiovascular risk factors, supporting the role of Type D personality across countries and cardiac conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)327-333
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013


Dive into the research topics of 'Cross-cultural analysis of Type D (distressed) personality in 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease: A study from the International HeartQoL Project'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this