Crowding in or crowding out? How non-governmental organizations and media influence intrinsic motivations toward corporate social and environmental responsibility

Johan Graafland, Frank G.A. de Bakker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Motivation crowding theory examines how external intervention may undermine intrinsic motivation. Earlier research has shown that intrinsic motivation plays a decisive role in fostering environmental performance of households and consumers, but that external pressures may “crowd out” the intrinsic motivations. Similar patterns could be expected in business organizations. However, only a few studies consider crowding effects of financial incentives on businesses’ intrinsic motivation to environmental responsibility, whereas none addresses the impact of external pressures from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and media, despite their prominent role. This study aims to address this gap by offering a mediation framework explaining how pressures from NGOs and media affect intrinsic motivation. Empirically, the paper adds to the scant empirical research by estimating a model on a sample of 4,364 enterprises from twelve European countries. We find that NGOs and media pressures increase financial benefits from environmental responsibility, which in turn crowd in intrinsic motivation in enterprises.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Environmental Planning and Management
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Feb 2021

Keywords

  • corporate social and environmental responsiility
  • intrinsic motivation
  • motivation crowding theory
  • NGOs
  • media

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Crowding in or crowding out? How non-governmental organizations and media influence intrinsic motivations toward corporate social and environmental responsibility'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this