Cultural, material, and psychosocial correlates of the socioeconomic gradient in smoking behavior among adults

K Stronks, HD vandeMheen, CWN Looman, JP Mackenbach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background. 

The aim was to identify the correlates of educational differences

Methods. 

We used data from the baseline of a Dutch longitudinal study, relating to a population of 2,462 respondents, ages 25-74. Logistic regression was used to assess the educational gradient in smoking. Current smokers were compared with former and never smokers, respectively.

Results. 

The risk of being a current smoker compared with being a former/never smoker was higher among lower educational groups. For example, the odds of being a current smoker compared with never smoker among persons in the lowest level was more than five times as high as that for persons in the highest level. A substantial part (20-40%) of the increased risk of being a smoker among lower groups appeared to be associated with adverse material conditions. The financial situation especially accounted for that effect. One of the cultural factors, i.e., locus of control, was found to account for approximately 30% of the educational gradient in the case in which smokers were compared with former smokers. Psychosocial factors, i.e., neuroticism and coping styles, accounted for less of the gradient in smoking than cultural and material factors.

Conclusions. 

On the basis of the results, we hypothesize that both cultural and material factors contribute to the higher smoking rates among lower socioeconomic groups. Psychosocial factors seem to be less important. If our results are confirmed in more powerful studies, this would indicate, first, that possibilities for a reduction of smoking differences may be found in tailoring smoking cessation programs to the more externally oriented locus of control and the coping styles that are common among lower educational groups, and second, that a reduction of smoking differences may follow from an improvement of the material living conditions of lower socioeconomic groups. (C) 1997 Academic Press.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)754-766
JournalPreventive Medicine
Volume26
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • educational status
  • smoking
  • risk factors
  • HEALTH-RELATED BEHAVIOR
  • CORONARY HEART-DISEASE
  • SOCIAL-CLASS
  • CIGARETTE-SMOKING
  • GENDER
  • INEQUALITIES
  • ADOLESCENTS
  • INSIGHTS
  • BRITAIN
  • STRESS

Cite this

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title = "Cultural, material, and psychosocial correlates of the socioeconomic gradient in smoking behavior among adults",
abstract = "Background. The aim was to identify the correlates of educational differencesMethods. We used data from the baseline of a Dutch longitudinal study, relating to a population of 2,462 respondents, ages 25-74. Logistic regression was used to assess the educational gradient in smoking. Current smokers were compared with former and never smokers, respectively.Results. The risk of being a current smoker compared with being a former/never smoker was higher among lower educational groups. For example, the odds of being a current smoker compared with never smoker among persons in the lowest level was more than five times as high as that for persons in the highest level. A substantial part (20-40{\%}) of the increased risk of being a smoker among lower groups appeared to be associated with adverse material conditions. The financial situation especially accounted for that effect. One of the cultural factors, i.e., locus of control, was found to account for approximately 30{\%} of the educational gradient in the case in which smokers were compared with former smokers. Psychosocial factors, i.e., neuroticism and coping styles, accounted for less of the gradient in smoking than cultural and material factors.Conclusions. On the basis of the results, we hypothesize that both cultural and material factors contribute to the higher smoking rates among lower socioeconomic groups. Psychosocial factors seem to be less important. If our results are confirmed in more powerful studies, this would indicate, first, that possibilities for a reduction of smoking differences may be found in tailoring smoking cessation programs to the more externally oriented locus of control and the coping styles that are common among lower educational groups, and second, that a reduction of smoking differences may follow from an improvement of the material living conditions of lower socioeconomic groups. (C) 1997 Academic Press.",
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author = "K Stronks and HD vandeMheen and CWN Looman and JP Mackenbach",
year = "1997",
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Cultural, material, and psychosocial correlates of the socioeconomic gradient in smoking behavior among adults. / Stronks, K; vandeMheen, HD; Looman, CWN; Mackenbach, JP.

In: Preventive Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 5, 1997, p. 754-766.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cultural, material, and psychosocial correlates of the socioeconomic gradient in smoking behavior among adults

AU - Stronks, K

AU - vandeMheen, HD

AU - Looman, CWN

AU - Mackenbach, JP

PY - 1997

Y1 - 1997

N2 - Background. The aim was to identify the correlates of educational differencesMethods. We used data from the baseline of a Dutch longitudinal study, relating to a population of 2,462 respondents, ages 25-74. Logistic regression was used to assess the educational gradient in smoking. Current smokers were compared with former and never smokers, respectively.Results. The risk of being a current smoker compared with being a former/never smoker was higher among lower educational groups. For example, the odds of being a current smoker compared with never smoker among persons in the lowest level was more than five times as high as that for persons in the highest level. A substantial part (20-40%) of the increased risk of being a smoker among lower groups appeared to be associated with adverse material conditions. The financial situation especially accounted for that effect. One of the cultural factors, i.e., locus of control, was found to account for approximately 30% of the educational gradient in the case in which smokers were compared with former smokers. Psychosocial factors, i.e., neuroticism and coping styles, accounted for less of the gradient in smoking than cultural and material factors.Conclusions. On the basis of the results, we hypothesize that both cultural and material factors contribute to the higher smoking rates among lower socioeconomic groups. Psychosocial factors seem to be less important. If our results are confirmed in more powerful studies, this would indicate, first, that possibilities for a reduction of smoking differences may be found in tailoring smoking cessation programs to the more externally oriented locus of control and the coping styles that are common among lower educational groups, and second, that a reduction of smoking differences may follow from an improvement of the material living conditions of lower socioeconomic groups. (C) 1997 Academic Press.

AB - Background. The aim was to identify the correlates of educational differencesMethods. We used data from the baseline of a Dutch longitudinal study, relating to a population of 2,462 respondents, ages 25-74. Logistic regression was used to assess the educational gradient in smoking. Current smokers were compared with former and never smokers, respectively.Results. The risk of being a current smoker compared with being a former/never smoker was higher among lower educational groups. For example, the odds of being a current smoker compared with never smoker among persons in the lowest level was more than five times as high as that for persons in the highest level. A substantial part (20-40%) of the increased risk of being a smoker among lower groups appeared to be associated with adverse material conditions. The financial situation especially accounted for that effect. One of the cultural factors, i.e., locus of control, was found to account for approximately 30% of the educational gradient in the case in which smokers were compared with former smokers. Psychosocial factors, i.e., neuroticism and coping styles, accounted for less of the gradient in smoking than cultural and material factors.Conclusions. On the basis of the results, we hypothesize that both cultural and material factors contribute to the higher smoking rates among lower socioeconomic groups. Psychosocial factors seem to be less important. If our results are confirmed in more powerful studies, this would indicate, first, that possibilities for a reduction of smoking differences may be found in tailoring smoking cessation programs to the more externally oriented locus of control and the coping styles that are common among lower educational groups, and second, that a reduction of smoking differences may follow from an improvement of the material living conditions of lower socioeconomic groups. (C) 1997 Academic Press.

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KW - smoking

KW - risk factors

KW - HEALTH-RELATED BEHAVIOR

KW - CORONARY HEART-DISEASE

KW - SOCIAL-CLASS

KW - CIGARETTE-SMOKING

KW - GENDER

KW - INEQUALITIES

KW - ADOLESCENTS

KW - INSIGHTS

KW - BRITAIN

KW - STRESS

U2 - 10.1006/pmed.1997.0174

DO - 10.1006/pmed.1997.0174

M3 - Article

VL - 26

SP - 754

EP - 766

JO - Preventive Medicine

JF - Preventive Medicine

SN - 0091-7435

IS - 5

ER -