Customer experience: Conceptualization, measurement, and application in omnichannel environments

Markus Gahler, Jan F. Klein*, Michael Paul

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Managing customer experiences has become a key strategic priority for service research and management. Yet researchers and managers lack a customer experience (CX) measure that applies to the different experience partners, touchpoints, and journey stages in the omnichannel environments of today’s service industries. Without such a common measure, empirical research on CX remains fragmented, and service companies continue to struggle to improve customer interactions in customer journeys. To address this shortcoming, this article proposes an omnichannel-capable measurement of CX that applies to different customer interactions in the omnichannel environment. With seven studies, the authors develop and validate a six-dimensional, 18-item CX scale. The proposed CX scale overcomes the fragmentation of existing scales in service research and provides a valid measure that can be used consistently for various customer interactions in omnichannel environments. This article details how the proposed CX scale can monitor and compare CX for different interactions in customer journeys (i.e., pain-point analysis), as well as improve CX features and their marketing outcomes (i.e., CX profiling). By overcoming the existing fragmentation in available scales and providing a common omnichannel CX measure, this CX scale establishes an empirical foundation for developing CX knowledge and advancing related service research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191-211
JournalJournal of Service Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


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