Daily fluctuations in occupation with and worry about COVID-19

Gerine Lodder*, Sjoerd van Halem, Anne Bülow, M.A. van Scheppingen, Josh Weller, Anne Reitz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
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In the first week after the first COVID-19 patient was reported in the Netherlands, we conducted a pre-registered momentary assessment study (7 surveys per day, 50 participants, 7 days) to study the dynamic relationship between individuals' occupation with and worries about COVID-19 in daily life, and the moderating role of neuroticism in this relationship. At the group level, higher scores on occupation and worry co-occurred, and occupation predicted worry 1 h later, but not vice versa. There were substantial individual differences in the magnitudes and directions of the effects. For instance, occupation with COVID-19 was related to increases in worry for some but decreases in worry for others. Neuroticism did not predict any of these individual differences in the links between worry and occupation. This study suggests that it is important to go beyond group-level analyses and to account for individual differences in responses to COVID-19.
Original languageEnglish
Article number111078
Number of pages7
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Dynamic relationships
  • Neuroticism
  • Preoccupation
  • RISK
  • Within-person effects
  • Worry


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