Democratic innovation beyond deliberative reflection: The plebiscitary rebound and the advent of action-oriented democracy

Frank Hendriks*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This article investigates democratic innovations of a plebiscitary and action-oriented type that diverge from a predominantly transformative and reflective definition of democratic innovation. Conceptually, the article offers a balanced, extended framework that serves to recognize and understand a range of democratic innovations that includes non-deliberative besides deliberative models and methods. Empirically, the article offers a closer look at three exemplary cases focusing on the rebound of aggregative democracy through the (quasi-)referendum, the advent of collaborative democratic governance through concerted action, and of do-it-ourselves democracy through pragmatic activism. Ultimately, the article calls for a practice and theory of democratic innovation aware of and sensitive to the reality of democratic hybridization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-464
Number of pages21
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2019


  • Democratic innovation
  • plebiscitary democracy
  • do-it-ourselves democracy
  • deliberative reflections
  • concretization

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