Depression and human immunodeficiency virus infection are risk factors for incident heart failure among veterans: Veterans Aging Cohort Study.

J.R. White, C.C. Chang, K.A. So-Amah, J.C. Stewart, S.K. Gupta, A.A. Butt, C.L. Gibert, D. Rimland, M.C. Rodriguez-Barradas, D.A. Leaf, R.J. Bedimo, J.S. Gottdiener, W.J. Kop, S.S. Gottlieb, M.J. Budoff, T. Khambaty, H.A. Tindle, A.C. Justice, M.S. Freiberg

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50 Citations (Scopus)


Both HIV and depression are associated with increased heart failure (HF) risk. Depression, a common comorbidity, may further increase the risk of HF among adults with HIV infection (HIV+). We assessed the association between HIV, depression, and incident HF.
Methods and Results
Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) participants free from cardiovascular disease at baseline (n=81 427: 26 908 HIV+, 54 519 without HIV [HIV−]) were categorized into 4 groups: HIV− without major depressive disorder (MDD) [reference], HIV− with MDD, HIV+ without MDD, and HIV+ with MDD. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from medical records were used to determine MDD and the primary outcome, HF. After 5.8 years of follow-up, HF rates per 1000 person-years were highest among HIV+ participants with MDD (9.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.20–10.6). In Cox proportional hazards models, HIV+ participants with MDD had a significantly higher risk of HF (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.45–1.95) compared with HIV− participants without MDD. MDD was associated with HF in separate fully adjusted models for HIV− and HIV+ participants (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06–1.37; and adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.11–1.51, respectively). Among those with MDD, baseline antidepressant use was associated with lower risk of incident HF events (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58–0.99).
Our study is the first to suggest that MDD is an independent risk factor for HF in HIV+ adults. These results reinforce the importance of identifying and managing MDD among HIV+ patients. Future studies must clarify mechanisms linking HIV, MDD, antidepressants, and HF and identify interventions to reduce HF morbidity and mortality in those with both HIV and MDD.
Keywords: depression, epidemiology, heart failure, HIV
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1630-1638
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 2015


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