Depressive symptoms in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: Does treatment expectations play a role?

S.S. Pedersen*, Christina M Andersen, J. Denollet, M. Habibovic

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)



Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and co-morbid depression are at greater risk of poor quality of life and premature death. We examined if treatment expectations predict depressive symptoms 12months post implant.


First-time implant patients from the WEBCARE study (n=177; 83.1% men) completed the EXPECTations towards ICD therapy questionnaire and the Type D Scale at baseline, and the Patient Health Questionnaire at baseline and 12months.


Using hierarchical linear regression with 3 models, we identified the following independent predictors of 12-months depressive symptoms: Model 1: Negative treatment expectations (β=0.202; p=0.020) and baseline depression (β=0.376; p<0.0001). Model 2: Baseline depression (β=0.350; p<0.0001) and Type D personality (β=0.162; p=0.042); negative treatment expectations was borderline significant (β=0.169; p=0.051). Model 3: Baseline depression (β=0.353; p<0.0001) and negative treatment expectations (β=0.180; p=0.043); Type D personality was not significant (β=0.150; p=0.067), adjusting for positive treatment expectations, heart failure, sex, and shocks during follow-up. The models accounted for 22.2%, 24.1%, and 23.3% of the variance in 12-months depressive symptoms, respectively.


Further research is warranted to explore the role of treatment expectations at the time of implant and its overlap with personality as a determinant of depression in patients with an ICD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-14
JournalGeneral Hospital Psychiatry: Psychiatry, Medicine and Primary Care
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Aged
  • Comorbidity
  • Defibrillators, Implantable/statistics & numerical data
  • Depression/epidemiology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Diseases/epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Outcome Assessment (Health Care)/statistics & numerical data
  • Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data
  • Type D Personality


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