Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE) study

Evelyn M Monninkhof, Petra H M Peeters, A.J. Schuit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)



Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanism(s) underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE) study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects.


In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50-69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strength training exercise programme. Participants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors.


This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish
Article number232
JournalBMC Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 4 Sept 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Aged
  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • Health Promotion
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Activity
  • Overweight
  • Postmenopause
  • Program Evaluation
  • Research Design
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Journal Article
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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