Development of the COVID-19 Perinatal Perception Questionnaire (COVID19-PPQ)

L.P. Hulsbosch*, M.G.B.M. Boekhorst, L. Muskens, E.S. Potharst, I. Nyklicek, V.J.M. Pop

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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The COVID-19 pandemic affects the mental health status of perinatal women, which makes it important to gain insight into and to effectively measure specific stressors of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we aimed to develop a COVID-19 Perinatal Perception Questionnaire (COVID19-PPQ). In-depth interviews were conducted during the first national lockdown period with pregnant women, new mothers and perinatal healthcare professionals, resulting in (a) a 27-item pregnancy and (b) a 21-item postpartum scale. Explorative factor analyses (EFA) in sample Ia (N = 154) and Ib (N = 90), and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) in sample IIa (N = 113) and IIb (N = 81) were conducted to test the psychometric properties of both scales. For the pregnancy scale, EFA suggested a three-factor solution (risk of infection, contact, future), which was confirmed by CFA and resulted in a final nine-item scale. For the postpartum scale, a three-factor solution (first postpartum week, COVID-19 measures, fear for infection) was suggested by EFA and confirmed by CFA, resulting in a final ten-item scale. Symptoms of depression and pregnancy-specific distress were significantly correlated with the pregnancy (sub)scale(s), while symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety showed significant correlations with the COVID-19 measures and fear for infection subscale. The COVID19-PPQ seems to be a valid instrument for assessment of perinatal COVID-19-related stress perception, showing adequate psychometric properties for both the pregnancy and postpartum scale. Future research should examine the use of this instrument in clinical practice during new episodes of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)735-744
JournalJournal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Perception
  • Perinatal
  • Validation


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