Development of the crying proneness scale

Associations among crying proneness, empathy, attachment, and age

Christy A. Denckla, Katherine L. Fiori, Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Crying is a unique form of human emotional expression that is associated with both positive and negative evocative antecedents. This article investigates the psychometric properties of a newly developed Crying Proneness Scale by examining the factor structure, test–retest reliability, and theoretically hypothesized relationships with empathy, attachment, age, and gender. Based on an analysis of data provided by a Dutch panel (Time 1: N = 4,916, Time 2: N = 4,874), exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that crying proneness is a multidimensional construct best characterized by four factors called attachment tears, societal tears, sentimental/moral tears, and compassionate tears. Test–retest reliability of the scale was adequate and associations with age, gender, empathy, and attachment demonstrated expected relations. Results suggest that this scale can be used to measure crying proneness, and that it will be useful in future studies that aim to gain a better understanding of normal and pathological socioemotional development.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)619-631
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Volume96
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Cite this

@article{cede226a5a834bdca3c785560e9f25f8,
title = "Development of the crying proneness scale: Associations among crying proneness, empathy, attachment, and age",
abstract = "Crying is a unique form of human emotional expression that is associated with both positive and negative evocative antecedents. This article investigates the psychometric properties of a newly developed Crying Proneness Scale by examining the factor structure, test–retest reliability, and theoretically hypothesized relationships with empathy, attachment, age, and gender. Based on an analysis of data provided by a Dutch panel (Time 1: N = 4,916, Time 2: N = 4,874), exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that crying proneness is a multidimensional construct best characterized by four factors called attachment tears, societal tears, sentimental/moral tears, and compassionate tears. Test–retest reliability of the scale was adequate and associations with age, gender, empathy, and attachment demonstrated expected relations. Results suggest that this scale can be used to measure crying proneness, and that it will be useful in future studies that aim to gain a better understanding of normal and pathological socioemotional development.",
author = "Denckla, {Christy A.} and Fiori, {Katherine L.} and Vingerhoets, {Ad J. J. M.}",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1080/00223891.2014.899498",
language = "English",
volume = "96",
pages = "619--631",
journal = "Journal of Personality Assessment",
issn = "0022-3891",
publisher = "ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD",
number = "6",

}

Development of the crying proneness scale : Associations among crying proneness, empathy, attachment, and age. / Denckla, Christy A.; Fiori, Katherine L.; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.

In: Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol. 96, No. 6, 2014, p. 619-631.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Development of the crying proneness scale

T2 - Associations among crying proneness, empathy, attachment, and age

AU - Denckla, Christy A.

AU - Fiori, Katherine L.

AU - Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Crying is a unique form of human emotional expression that is associated with both positive and negative evocative antecedents. This article investigates the psychometric properties of a newly developed Crying Proneness Scale by examining the factor structure, test–retest reliability, and theoretically hypothesized relationships with empathy, attachment, age, and gender. Based on an analysis of data provided by a Dutch panel (Time 1: N = 4,916, Time 2: N = 4,874), exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that crying proneness is a multidimensional construct best characterized by four factors called attachment tears, societal tears, sentimental/moral tears, and compassionate tears. Test–retest reliability of the scale was adequate and associations with age, gender, empathy, and attachment demonstrated expected relations. Results suggest that this scale can be used to measure crying proneness, and that it will be useful in future studies that aim to gain a better understanding of normal and pathological socioemotional development.

AB - Crying is a unique form of human emotional expression that is associated with both positive and negative evocative antecedents. This article investigates the psychometric properties of a newly developed Crying Proneness Scale by examining the factor structure, test–retest reliability, and theoretically hypothesized relationships with empathy, attachment, age, and gender. Based on an analysis of data provided by a Dutch panel (Time 1: N = 4,916, Time 2: N = 4,874), exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that crying proneness is a multidimensional construct best characterized by four factors called attachment tears, societal tears, sentimental/moral tears, and compassionate tears. Test–retest reliability of the scale was adequate and associations with age, gender, empathy, and attachment demonstrated expected relations. Results suggest that this scale can be used to measure crying proneness, and that it will be useful in future studies that aim to gain a better understanding of normal and pathological socioemotional development.

U2 - 10.1080/00223891.2014.899498

DO - 10.1080/00223891.2014.899498

M3 - Article

VL - 96

SP - 619

EP - 631

JO - Journal of Personality Assessment

JF - Journal of Personality Assessment

SN - 0022-3891

IS - 6

ER -