Development of the Labor Pain Relief Attitude Questionnaire for pregnant women (LPRAQ-p)

L.P. Hulsbosch*, I. Nyklicek, E.S. Potharst, M.G.B.M. Boekhorst, V.J.M. Pop

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background
Receiving epidural analgesia during labor can possibly have negative consequences for mother and child. Yet, the use of epidural analgesia rapidly increased in the Netherlands over the last decade. Since antenatal plans for labor pain relief have been related to epidural analgesia use during labor, the aim of the current study was to develop a Labor Pain Relief Attitude Questionnaire for pregnant women (LPRAQ-p).

Methods
Three focus group interviews were conducted with pregnant women, new mothers and caregivers and 13 candidate items were derived. Psychometric properties were tested with explorative factor analysis in sample I (N = 429) and a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis in a different sample II (N = 432).

Results
The explorative factor analysis suggested a two-factor seven-item solution: a ‘women’s perception’ and ‘social environment’ subscale. The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed an excellent six-item model fit with appropriate internal consistency. Higher scores on the six-item LPRAQ-p indicate greater willingness for request of pain relief medication during labor. Two-tailed t-tests showed that women with elevated levels of depression and pregnancy-specific distress symptoms, nulliparous women and multiparous women with complications during a previous delivery had greater willingness for request of pain relief medication during labor. Linear regression showed that the most important association with higher scores on the LPRAQ-p were high pregnancy-specific distress symptoms.

Conclusions
This study showed the LPRAQ-p to be a valid instrument to evaluate attitude towards labor pain relief in pregnant women. High scores on this questionnaire are associated with high levels of pregnancy-specific distress symptoms.
Original languageEnglish
Article number718
Number of pages12
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Antenatal
  • Attitude
  • CHILDBIRTH
  • COGNITIONS
  • DEPRESSION
  • EPIDURAL ANALGESIA
  • EXPECTANCIES
  • EXPECTATIONS
  • Epidural analgesia
  • FATHERS EXPERIENCE
  • FEAR
  • Labor pain relief
  • PREDICTORS
  • SELF-EFFICACY
  • Validation

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