Different trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy

Myrthe G.b.m. Boekhorst*, Annemerle Beerthuizen, Joyce J Endendijk, Kiki E.m. Van Broekhoven, Anneloes Van Baar, Veerle Bergink, Victor J.M. Pop

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background
Up to 10–15% of women experience high levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Since these levels of symptoms can vary greatly over time, the current study investigated the existence of possible longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, and aimed to identify factors associated with these trajectories.
Methods
Depressive symptoms were assessed prospectively at each trimester in 1832 women, using the Edinburgh (Postnatal) Depression Scale (E(P)DS). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.
Results
Three trajectories of depressive symptoms (E(P)DS scores) were identified: low stable (class 1, reference group, 83%), decreasing (class 2, 7%), and increasing (class 3, 10%). Classes 2 and 3 had significantly higher mean E(P)DS scores (7–13 throughout pregnancy) compared to the reference group (stable; E(P)DS <4). Factors associated with trajectories 2 and 3 included previous depressive episodes, life events during pregnancy, and unplanned pregnancy. Notably, the only factor distinguishing classes 2 and 3 was the perception of partner involvement experienced by women during their pregnancies. Class 2 (with decreasing E(P)DS scores) reported high partner involvement, while class 3 (with increasing E(P)DS scores) reported poor partner involvement throughout pregnancy.
Limitations
Depressive symptoms were assessed by self-report rather than a diagnostic interview. The participants were more often both highly educated and of Caucasian ethnicity compared to the general Dutch population.
Conclusions
Poor partner involvement was associated with increasing depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Health professionals should focus on partner involvement during pregnancy in order to identify women who are potentially vulnerable for perinatal depression.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-146
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume248
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Postpartum Depression
Depression
Self Report
Interviews

Keywords

  • ANXIETY
  • CLASS GROWTH ANALYSIS
  • Course
  • Growth mixture modeling
  • HETEROGENEITY
  • MATERNAL DEPRESSION
  • Maternal depressive symptoms
  • PARTNER SUPPORT
  • PERINATAL DEPRESSION
  • POSTNATAL DEPRESSION
  • POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION
  • PREVALENCE
  • Partner involvement
  • Pregnancy
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • Trajectories

Cite this

Boekhorst, Myrthe G.b.m. ; Beerthuizen, Annemerle ; Endendijk, Joyce J ; Van Broekhoven, Kiki E.m. ; Van Baar, Anneloes ; Bergink, Veerle ; Pop, Victor J.M. / Different trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2019 ; Vol. 248. pp. 139-146.
@article{62023785a9bb439cacd029d05f98edc0,
title = "Different trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy",
abstract = "BackgroundUp to 10–15{\%} of women experience high levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Since these levels of symptoms can vary greatly over time, the current study investigated the existence of possible longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, and aimed to identify factors associated with these trajectories.MethodsDepressive symptoms were assessed prospectively at each trimester in 1832 women, using the Edinburgh (Postnatal) Depression Scale (E(P)DS). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.ResultsThree trajectories of depressive symptoms (E(P)DS scores) were identified: low stable (class 1, reference group, 83{\%}), decreasing (class 2, 7{\%}), and increasing (class 3, 10{\%}). Classes 2 and 3 had significantly higher mean E(P)DS scores (7–13 throughout pregnancy) compared to the reference group (stable; E(P)DS <4). Factors associated with trajectories 2 and 3 included previous depressive episodes, life events during pregnancy, and unplanned pregnancy. Notably, the only factor distinguishing classes 2 and 3 was the perception of partner involvement experienced by women during their pregnancies. Class 2 (with decreasing E(P)DS scores) reported high partner involvement, while class 3 (with increasing E(P)DS scores) reported poor partner involvement throughout pregnancy.LimitationsDepressive symptoms were assessed by self-report rather than a diagnostic interview. The participants were more often both highly educated and of Caucasian ethnicity compared to the general Dutch population.ConclusionsPoor partner involvement was associated with increasing depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Health professionals should focus on partner involvement during pregnancy in order to identify women who are potentially vulnerable for perinatal depression.",
keywords = "ANXIETY, CLASS GROWTH ANALYSIS, Course, Growth mixture modeling, HETEROGENEITY, MATERNAL DEPRESSION, Maternal depressive symptoms, PARTNER SUPPORT, PERINATAL DEPRESSION, POSTNATAL DEPRESSION, POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION, PREVALENCE, Partner involvement, Pregnancy, RISK-FACTORS, Trajectories",
author = "Boekhorst, {Myrthe G.b.m.} and Annemerle Beerthuizen and Endendijk, {Joyce J} and {Van Broekhoven}, {Kiki E.m.} and {Van Baar}, Anneloes and Veerle Bergink and Pop, {Victor J.M.}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.jad.2019.01.021",
language = "English",
volume = "248",
pages = "139--146",
journal = "Journal of Affective Disorders",
issn = "0165-0327",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Different trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. / Boekhorst, Myrthe G.b.m.; Beerthuizen, Annemerle; Endendijk, Joyce J; Van Broekhoven, Kiki E.m.; Van Baar, Anneloes; Bergink, Veerle; Pop, Victor J.M.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 248, 2019, p. 139-146.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Different trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy

AU - Boekhorst, Myrthe G.b.m.

AU - Beerthuizen, Annemerle

AU - Endendijk, Joyce J

AU - Van Broekhoven, Kiki E.m.

AU - Van Baar, Anneloes

AU - Bergink, Veerle

AU - Pop, Victor J.M.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - BackgroundUp to 10–15% of women experience high levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Since these levels of symptoms can vary greatly over time, the current study investigated the existence of possible longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, and aimed to identify factors associated with these trajectories.MethodsDepressive symptoms were assessed prospectively at each trimester in 1832 women, using the Edinburgh (Postnatal) Depression Scale (E(P)DS). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.ResultsThree trajectories of depressive symptoms (E(P)DS scores) were identified: low stable (class 1, reference group, 83%), decreasing (class 2, 7%), and increasing (class 3, 10%). Classes 2 and 3 had significantly higher mean E(P)DS scores (7–13 throughout pregnancy) compared to the reference group (stable; E(P)DS <4). Factors associated with trajectories 2 and 3 included previous depressive episodes, life events during pregnancy, and unplanned pregnancy. Notably, the only factor distinguishing classes 2 and 3 was the perception of partner involvement experienced by women during their pregnancies. Class 2 (with decreasing E(P)DS scores) reported high partner involvement, while class 3 (with increasing E(P)DS scores) reported poor partner involvement throughout pregnancy.LimitationsDepressive symptoms were assessed by self-report rather than a diagnostic interview. The participants were more often both highly educated and of Caucasian ethnicity compared to the general Dutch population.ConclusionsPoor partner involvement was associated with increasing depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Health professionals should focus on partner involvement during pregnancy in order to identify women who are potentially vulnerable for perinatal depression.

AB - BackgroundUp to 10–15% of women experience high levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Since these levels of symptoms can vary greatly over time, the current study investigated the existence of possible longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, and aimed to identify factors associated with these trajectories.MethodsDepressive symptoms were assessed prospectively at each trimester in 1832 women, using the Edinburgh (Postnatal) Depression Scale (E(P)DS). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.ResultsThree trajectories of depressive symptoms (E(P)DS scores) were identified: low stable (class 1, reference group, 83%), decreasing (class 2, 7%), and increasing (class 3, 10%). Classes 2 and 3 had significantly higher mean E(P)DS scores (7–13 throughout pregnancy) compared to the reference group (stable; E(P)DS <4). Factors associated with trajectories 2 and 3 included previous depressive episodes, life events during pregnancy, and unplanned pregnancy. Notably, the only factor distinguishing classes 2 and 3 was the perception of partner involvement experienced by women during their pregnancies. Class 2 (with decreasing E(P)DS scores) reported high partner involvement, while class 3 (with increasing E(P)DS scores) reported poor partner involvement throughout pregnancy.LimitationsDepressive symptoms were assessed by self-report rather than a diagnostic interview. The participants were more often both highly educated and of Caucasian ethnicity compared to the general Dutch population.ConclusionsPoor partner involvement was associated with increasing depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Health professionals should focus on partner involvement during pregnancy in order to identify women who are potentially vulnerable for perinatal depression.

KW - ANXIETY

KW - CLASS GROWTH ANALYSIS

KW - Course

KW - Growth mixture modeling

KW - HETEROGENEITY

KW - MATERNAL DEPRESSION

KW - Maternal depressive symptoms

KW - PARTNER SUPPORT

KW - PERINATAL DEPRESSION

KW - POSTNATAL DEPRESSION

KW - POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION

KW - PREVALENCE

KW - Partner involvement

KW - Pregnancy

KW - RISK-FACTORS

KW - Trajectories

U2 - 10.1016/j.jad.2019.01.021

DO - 10.1016/j.jad.2019.01.021

M3 - Article

VL - 248

SP - 139

EP - 146

JO - Journal of Affective Disorders

JF - Journal of Affective Disorders

SN - 0165-0327

ER -