Differentiated threat and the genesis of prejudice: Group-specific antecedents of homonegativity, islamophobia, anti-semitism, and anti-immigrant attitudes

Bart Meuleman, Koenraad Abts, Koen Slootmaeckers, Cecil Meeusen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

In this article, we argue that an exclusive focus on the generalized aspect of prejudice limits understanding of the structure and genesis of prejudice towards particular outgroups. In order to conceptualize the specific nature of particular prejudices, we propose the differentiated threat approach. This framework postulates that different outgroups challenge diverse realistic and symbolic interests, and that these outgroup specific threats affect various socioeconomic strata and cultural groups differentially. The differentiated threat approach is applied to analyse majority-group Belgians’ attitudes towards immigrants, Muslims, Jews, and homosexuals. The results show that a common denominator of prejudice can be distinguished, but that the prejudices towards the various outgroups contain substantively relevant unique components that are influenced by socio-demographic and attitudinal predictors in diverging ways. Gender traditionalism is found to reinforce Homonegativity and temper Islamophobia at the same time. Feelings of relative deprivation are more strongly related to Islamophobia than to other forms of prejudice, and are unrelated to homonegativity. Religious involvement plays a more decisive role in the formation of anti-Semitism and Homonegativity than it does in the other forms of prejudice. Anti-immigration attitudes show a class gradient that is absent in attitudes towards other outgroups. Our results evidence that the concrete realization of attitudes towards a specific outgroup cannot be understood without paying attention to structural and contextual factors, such as social positions, the nature of intergroup relations, power balances, and elite discourses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-244
JournalSocial Problems
Volume66
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

antisemitism
prejudice
outgroup
immigrant
threat
Group
social position
conservatism
Belgian
social stratum
islamophobia
deprivation
homosexuality
Jew
Muslim
immigration
elite
discourse
gender
evidence

Cite this

@article{2618adc3fe7c4b9c85920f724996df70,
title = "Differentiated threat and the genesis of prejudice: Group-specific antecedents of homonegativity, islamophobia, anti-semitism, and anti-immigrant attitudes",
abstract = "In this article, we argue that an exclusive focus on the generalized aspect of prejudice limits understanding of the structure and genesis of prejudice towards particular outgroups. In order to conceptualize the specific nature of particular prejudices, we propose the differentiated threat approach. This framework postulates that different outgroups challenge diverse realistic and symbolic interests, and that these outgroup specific threats affect various socioeconomic strata and cultural groups differentially. The differentiated threat approach is applied to analyse majority-group Belgians’ attitudes towards immigrants, Muslims, Jews, and homosexuals. The results show that a common denominator of prejudice can be distinguished, but that the prejudices towards the various outgroups contain substantively relevant unique components that are influenced by socio-demographic and attitudinal predictors in diverging ways. Gender traditionalism is found to reinforce Homonegativity and temper Islamophobia at the same time. Feelings of relative deprivation are more strongly related to Islamophobia than to other forms of prejudice, and are unrelated to homonegativity. Religious involvement plays a more decisive role in the formation of anti-Semitism and Homonegativity than it does in the other forms of prejudice. Anti-immigration attitudes show a class gradient that is absent in attitudes towards other outgroups. Our results evidence that the concrete realization of attitudes towards a specific outgroup cannot be understood without paying attention to structural and contextual factors, such as social positions, the nature of intergroup relations, power balances, and elite discourses.",
author = "Bart Meuleman and Koenraad Abts and Koen Slootmaeckers and Cecil Meeusen",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1093/socpro/spy002",
language = "English",
volume = "66",
pages = "222--244",
journal = "Social Problems",
issn = "0037-7791",
number = "2",

}

Differentiated threat and the genesis of prejudice : Group-specific antecedents of homonegativity, islamophobia, anti-semitism, and anti-immigrant attitudes. / Meuleman, Bart; Abts, Koenraad; Slootmaeckers, Koen; Meeusen, Cecil.

In: Social Problems, Vol. 66, No. 2, 2018, p. 222-244.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Differentiated threat and the genesis of prejudice

T2 - Group-specific antecedents of homonegativity, islamophobia, anti-semitism, and anti-immigrant attitudes

AU - Meuleman, Bart

AU - Abts, Koenraad

AU - Slootmaeckers, Koen

AU - Meeusen, Cecil

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - In this article, we argue that an exclusive focus on the generalized aspect of prejudice limits understanding of the structure and genesis of prejudice towards particular outgroups. In order to conceptualize the specific nature of particular prejudices, we propose the differentiated threat approach. This framework postulates that different outgroups challenge diverse realistic and symbolic interests, and that these outgroup specific threats affect various socioeconomic strata and cultural groups differentially. The differentiated threat approach is applied to analyse majority-group Belgians’ attitudes towards immigrants, Muslims, Jews, and homosexuals. The results show that a common denominator of prejudice can be distinguished, but that the prejudices towards the various outgroups contain substantively relevant unique components that are influenced by socio-demographic and attitudinal predictors in diverging ways. Gender traditionalism is found to reinforce Homonegativity and temper Islamophobia at the same time. Feelings of relative deprivation are more strongly related to Islamophobia than to other forms of prejudice, and are unrelated to homonegativity. Religious involvement plays a more decisive role in the formation of anti-Semitism and Homonegativity than it does in the other forms of prejudice. Anti-immigration attitudes show a class gradient that is absent in attitudes towards other outgroups. Our results evidence that the concrete realization of attitudes towards a specific outgroup cannot be understood without paying attention to structural and contextual factors, such as social positions, the nature of intergroup relations, power balances, and elite discourses.

AB - In this article, we argue that an exclusive focus on the generalized aspect of prejudice limits understanding of the structure and genesis of prejudice towards particular outgroups. In order to conceptualize the specific nature of particular prejudices, we propose the differentiated threat approach. This framework postulates that different outgroups challenge diverse realistic and symbolic interests, and that these outgroup specific threats affect various socioeconomic strata and cultural groups differentially. The differentiated threat approach is applied to analyse majority-group Belgians’ attitudes towards immigrants, Muslims, Jews, and homosexuals. The results show that a common denominator of prejudice can be distinguished, but that the prejudices towards the various outgroups contain substantively relevant unique components that are influenced by socio-demographic and attitudinal predictors in diverging ways. Gender traditionalism is found to reinforce Homonegativity and temper Islamophobia at the same time. Feelings of relative deprivation are more strongly related to Islamophobia than to other forms of prejudice, and are unrelated to homonegativity. Religious involvement plays a more decisive role in the formation of anti-Semitism and Homonegativity than it does in the other forms of prejudice. Anti-immigration attitudes show a class gradient that is absent in attitudes towards other outgroups. Our results evidence that the concrete realization of attitudes towards a specific outgroup cannot be understood without paying attention to structural and contextual factors, such as social positions, the nature of intergroup relations, power balances, and elite discourses.

U2 - 10.1093/socpro/spy002

DO - 10.1093/socpro/spy002

M3 - Article

VL - 66

SP - 222

EP - 244

JO - Social Problems

JF - Social Problems

SN - 0037-7791

IS - 2

ER -