Direct transport versus inter hospital transfer of severely injured trauma patients

Stefan Mans, Eline Reinders Folmer, M.A. C. de Jongh, K.W. W. Lansink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Introduction
Several studies have suggested that severely injured patients should be transported directly to a trauma centre bypassing the nearest hospital. However, the evidence remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits in terms of mortality of direct transport to a trauma centre versus primary treatment in a level II or III centre followed by inter hospital transfer to a trauma centre for severely injured patients without Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).
Patients and methods
We used the regional trauma registry and included all patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15 and an Abbreviated Injury Score <4 for head injury. We adjusted for survival bias by including “potential transfers”: patients who died at the nearest hospitals before transportation to a trauma centre.
Results
A total of 439 patients was included. The majority of patients (349/439, 79%) was transported directly to the level I trauma centre (direct group). The transferred group was formed by the remaining 90 patients, of whom 81 were transferred to the level I trauma centre after initial stabilisation elsewhere and 9 patients died in the emergency room before transfer to a level 1 trauma centre could occur. There were no significant differences in baseline and injury characteristics between the groups. Overall, 60 patients died in-hospital including 41 of the 349 patients (12%) in the direct group and 19 of the 90 patients (21%) in the transferred group. Nine of the 19 deaths in the transferred group were ascribed to potential transfers. After adjusting for prehospital Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and ISS, the odds ratio of death was 2.40 (95%CI: 1.07–5.40) for patients in the transfer group. When potential transfer patients were excluded from the analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of death was 1.14 (95%CI: 0.43–3.01).
Conclusions
After adjusting for survivor bias by including potential transfers, the results of this study suggest a lower risk of death for patients who are directly transported to a level I trauma centre than for patients who receive primary treatment in a level II or III centre and are transferred to a trauma centre. However, this finding was only significant when adjusting for survival bias and therefore we conclude that it is still uncertain if there is a lower risk of death for patients who are transported directly to a level I trauma centre.Keywords: Trauma centre, Triage, Mortality, Trauma, Severely injured patients,Pre-hospital transport, Pre-hospital care, Trauma systems, Multi trauma, Inter hospital transfer
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-31
JournalInjury
Volume47
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • Trauma centre
  • Triage
  • Mortality
  • Trauma
  • Severely injured patients
  • Pre-hospital transport
  • Pre-hospital care
  • Trauma systems
  • Multi trauma
  • Inter hospital transfer

Cite this

Mans, Stefan ; Folmer, Eline Reinders ; de Jongh, M.A. C. ; Lansink, K.W. W. / Direct transport versus inter hospital transfer of severely injured trauma patients. In: Injury. 2016 ; Vol. 47, No. 1. pp. 26-31.
@article{49eef9a3043c4fb5b4cd22c5a72f6131,
title = "Direct transport versus inter hospital transfer of severely injured trauma patients",
abstract = "IntroductionSeveral studies have suggested that severely injured patients should be transported directly to a trauma centre bypassing the nearest hospital. However, the evidence remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits in terms of mortality of direct transport to a trauma centre versus primary treatment in a level II or III centre followed by inter hospital transfer to a trauma centre for severely injured patients without Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).Patients and methodsWe used the regional trauma registry and included all patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15 and an Abbreviated Injury Score <4 for head injury. We adjusted for survival bias by including “potential transfers”: patients who died at the nearest hospitals before transportation to a trauma centre.ResultsA total of 439 patients was included. The majority of patients (349/439, 79{\%}) was transported directly to the level I trauma centre (direct group). The transferred group was formed by the remaining 90 patients, of whom 81 were transferred to the level I trauma centre after initial stabilisation elsewhere and 9 patients died in the emergency room before transfer to a level 1 trauma centre could occur. There were no significant differences in baseline and injury characteristics between the groups. Overall, 60 patients died in-hospital including 41 of the 349 patients (12{\%}) in the direct group and 19 of the 90 patients (21{\%}) in the transferred group. Nine of the 19 deaths in the transferred group were ascribed to potential transfers. After adjusting for prehospital Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and ISS, the odds ratio of death was 2.40 (95{\%}CI: 1.07–5.40) for patients in the transfer group. When potential transfer patients were excluded from the analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of death was 1.14 (95{\%}CI: 0.43–3.01).ConclusionsAfter adjusting for survivor bias by including potential transfers, the results of this study suggest a lower risk of death for patients who are directly transported to a level I trauma centre than for patients who receive primary treatment in a level II or III centre and are transferred to a trauma centre. However, this finding was only significant when adjusting for survival bias and therefore we conclude that it is still uncertain if there is a lower risk of death for patients who are transported directly to a level I trauma centre.Keywords: Trauma centre, Triage, Mortality, Trauma, Severely injured patients,Pre-hospital transport, Pre-hospital care, Trauma systems, Multi trauma, Inter hospital transfer",
keywords = "Trauma centre, Triage, Mortality, Trauma, Severely injured patients, Pre-hospital transport, Pre-hospital care, Trauma systems, Multi trauma, Inter hospital transfer",
author = "Stefan Mans and Folmer, {Eline Reinders} and {de Jongh}, {M.A. C.} and Lansink, {K.W. W.}",
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Direct transport versus inter hospital transfer of severely injured trauma patients. / Mans, Stefan; Folmer, Eline Reinders; de Jongh, M.A. C.; Lansink, K.W. W.

In: Injury, Vol. 47, No. 1, 2016, p. 26-31.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Direct transport versus inter hospital transfer of severely injured trauma patients

AU - Mans, Stefan

AU - Folmer, Eline Reinders

AU - de Jongh, M.A. C.

AU - Lansink, K.W. W.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - IntroductionSeveral studies have suggested that severely injured patients should be transported directly to a trauma centre bypassing the nearest hospital. However, the evidence remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits in terms of mortality of direct transport to a trauma centre versus primary treatment in a level II or III centre followed by inter hospital transfer to a trauma centre for severely injured patients without Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).Patients and methodsWe used the regional trauma registry and included all patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15 and an Abbreviated Injury Score <4 for head injury. We adjusted for survival bias by including “potential transfers”: patients who died at the nearest hospitals before transportation to a trauma centre.ResultsA total of 439 patients was included. The majority of patients (349/439, 79%) was transported directly to the level I trauma centre (direct group). The transferred group was formed by the remaining 90 patients, of whom 81 were transferred to the level I trauma centre after initial stabilisation elsewhere and 9 patients died in the emergency room before transfer to a level 1 trauma centre could occur. There were no significant differences in baseline and injury characteristics between the groups. Overall, 60 patients died in-hospital including 41 of the 349 patients (12%) in the direct group and 19 of the 90 patients (21%) in the transferred group. Nine of the 19 deaths in the transferred group were ascribed to potential transfers. After adjusting for prehospital Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and ISS, the odds ratio of death was 2.40 (95%CI: 1.07–5.40) for patients in the transfer group. When potential transfer patients were excluded from the analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of death was 1.14 (95%CI: 0.43–3.01).ConclusionsAfter adjusting for survivor bias by including potential transfers, the results of this study suggest a lower risk of death for patients who are directly transported to a level I trauma centre than for patients who receive primary treatment in a level II or III centre and are transferred to a trauma centre. However, this finding was only significant when adjusting for survival bias and therefore we conclude that it is still uncertain if there is a lower risk of death for patients who are transported directly to a level I trauma centre.Keywords: Trauma centre, Triage, Mortality, Trauma, Severely injured patients,Pre-hospital transport, Pre-hospital care, Trauma systems, Multi trauma, Inter hospital transfer

AB - IntroductionSeveral studies have suggested that severely injured patients should be transported directly to a trauma centre bypassing the nearest hospital. However, the evidence remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits in terms of mortality of direct transport to a trauma centre versus primary treatment in a level II or III centre followed by inter hospital transfer to a trauma centre for severely injured patients without Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).Patients and methodsWe used the regional trauma registry and included all patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15 and an Abbreviated Injury Score <4 for head injury. We adjusted for survival bias by including “potential transfers”: patients who died at the nearest hospitals before transportation to a trauma centre.ResultsA total of 439 patients was included. The majority of patients (349/439, 79%) was transported directly to the level I trauma centre (direct group). The transferred group was formed by the remaining 90 patients, of whom 81 were transferred to the level I trauma centre after initial stabilisation elsewhere and 9 patients died in the emergency room before transfer to a level 1 trauma centre could occur. There were no significant differences in baseline and injury characteristics between the groups. Overall, 60 patients died in-hospital including 41 of the 349 patients (12%) in the direct group and 19 of the 90 patients (21%) in the transferred group. Nine of the 19 deaths in the transferred group were ascribed to potential transfers. After adjusting for prehospital Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and ISS, the odds ratio of death was 2.40 (95%CI: 1.07–5.40) for patients in the transfer group. When potential transfer patients were excluded from the analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of death was 1.14 (95%CI: 0.43–3.01).ConclusionsAfter adjusting for survivor bias by including potential transfers, the results of this study suggest a lower risk of death for patients who are directly transported to a level I trauma centre than for patients who receive primary treatment in a level II or III centre and are transferred to a trauma centre. However, this finding was only significant when adjusting for survival bias and therefore we conclude that it is still uncertain if there is a lower risk of death for patients who are transported directly to a level I trauma centre.Keywords: Trauma centre, Triage, Mortality, Trauma, Severely injured patients,Pre-hospital transport, Pre-hospital care, Trauma systems, Multi trauma, Inter hospital transfer

KW - Trauma centre

KW - Triage

KW - Mortality

KW - Trauma

KW - Severely injured patients

KW - Pre-hospital transport

KW - Pre-hospital care

KW - Trauma systems

KW - Multi trauma

KW - Inter hospital transfer

U2 - 10.1016/j.injury.2015.09.020

DO - 10.1016/j.injury.2015.09.020

M3 - Article

VL - 47

SP - 26

EP - 31

JO - Injury

JF - Injury

SN - 0020-1383

IS - 1

ER -