Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and then years post-disaster - a longitudinal study

B. van den Berg, A. Wong, P.G. van der Velden, H.C. Boshuizen, L. Grievink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Abstract
Background:
Disaster experiences have been associated with higher prevalence rates of (mental) health problems. The objective of this study was to examine the independent relation between a series of single disaster experiences
versus the independent predictive value of a accumulation of disaster experiences, i.e. a sum score of experiences and symptoms of distress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Methods: Survivors of a fireworks disaster participated in a longitudinal study and completed a questionnaire three weeks (wave 1), eighteen months (wave 2) and four years post-disaster (wave 3). Ten years post-disaster (wave 4)
the respondents consisted of native Dutch survivors only. Main outcome measures were general distress and symptoms of PTSD.

Results:
Degree of disaster exposure (sum score) and some disaster-related experiences (such as house destroyed, injured, confusion) were related to distress at waves 2 and 3. This relation was mediated by distress at an earlier point in time. None of the individual disaster-related experiences was independently related to symptoms of distress. The association between the degree of disaster exposure and symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3 was still statistically significant after controlling for symptoms of distress and PTSD at earlier point in time. The variable house destroyed was the only factor that was independently related to symptoms of PTSD at wave 2. Ten years after the disaster, disaster exposure was mediated by symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3. Disaster exposure was
not independently related to symptoms of PTSD ten years post-disaster.

Conclusions:
Until 4 years after the disaster, degree of exposure (a sum score) was a risk factor for PTSD symptoms while none of the individual disaster experiences could be identified as an independent risk factor. Ten years post-disaster, disaster exposure was no longer an independent risk factor for symptoms of PTSD. Since symptoms of PTSD and distress at earlier waves perpetuate the symptoms at later waves, health care workers should aim their resources at those who still have symptoms after one and a half year post-disaster, to prevent health problems at medium and long-term.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberdoi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-147
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalBMC Psychiatry
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Disasters
Mental Health
Survivors

Cite this

van den Berg, B., Wong, A., van der Velden, P. G., Boshuizen, H. C., & Grievink, L. (2013). Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and then years post-disaster - a longitudinal study. BMC Psychiatry, 12, 1-13. [doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-147]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244x-12-147
van den Berg, B. ; Wong, A. ; van der Velden, P.G. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Grievink, L. / Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and then years post-disaster - a longitudinal study. In: BMC Psychiatry. 2013 ; Vol. 12. pp. 1-13.
@article{9285d01f8e5c4d31b2499c872e4e2ef6,
title = "Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and then years post-disaster - a longitudinal study",
abstract = "AbstractBackground:Disaster experiences have been associated with higher prevalence rates of (mental) health problems. The objective of this study was to examine the independent relation between a series of single disaster experiencesversus the independent predictive value of a accumulation of disaster experiences, i.e. a sum score of experiences and symptoms of distress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Methods: Survivors of a fireworks disaster participated in a longitudinal study and completed a questionnaire three weeks (wave 1), eighteen months (wave 2) and four years post-disaster (wave 3). Ten years post-disaster (wave 4)the respondents consisted of native Dutch survivors only. Main outcome measures were general distress and symptoms of PTSD.Results:Degree of disaster exposure (sum score) and some disaster-related experiences (such as house destroyed, injured, confusion) were related to distress at waves 2 and 3. This relation was mediated by distress at an earlier point in time. None of the individual disaster-related experiences was independently related to symptoms of distress. The association between the degree of disaster exposure and symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3 was still statistically significant after controlling for symptoms of distress and PTSD at earlier point in time. The variable house destroyed was the only factor that was independently related to symptoms of PTSD at wave 2. Ten years after the disaster, disaster exposure was mediated by symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3. Disaster exposure wasnot independently related to symptoms of PTSD ten years post-disaster.Conclusions:Until 4 years after the disaster, degree of exposure (a sum score) was a risk factor for PTSD symptoms while none of the individual disaster experiences could be identified as an independent risk factor. Ten years post-disaster, disaster exposure was no longer an independent risk factor for symptoms of PTSD. Since symptoms of PTSD and distress at earlier waves perpetuate the symptoms at later waves, health care workers should aim their resources at those who still have symptoms after one and a half year post-disaster, to prevent health problems at medium and long-term.",
author = "{van den Berg}, B. and A. Wong and {van der Velden}, P.G. and H.C. Boshuizen and L. Grievink",
note = ">2000 woorden",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1186/1471-244x-12-147",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "1--13",
journal = "BMC Psychiatry",
issn = "1471-244X",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

van den Berg, B, Wong, A, van der Velden, PG, Boshuizen, HC & Grievink, L 2013, 'Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and then years post-disaster - a longitudinal study', BMC Psychiatry, vol. 12, doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-147, pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244x-12-147

Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and then years post-disaster - a longitudinal study. / van den Berg, B.; Wong, A.; van der Velden, P.G.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Grievink, L.

In: BMC Psychiatry, Vol. 12, doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-147, 2013, p. 1-13.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and then years post-disaster - a longitudinal study

AU - van den Berg, B.

AU - Wong, A.

AU - van der Velden, P.G.

AU - Boshuizen, H.C.

AU - Grievink, L.

N1 - >2000 woorden

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - AbstractBackground:Disaster experiences have been associated with higher prevalence rates of (mental) health problems. The objective of this study was to examine the independent relation between a series of single disaster experiencesversus the independent predictive value of a accumulation of disaster experiences, i.e. a sum score of experiences and symptoms of distress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Methods: Survivors of a fireworks disaster participated in a longitudinal study and completed a questionnaire three weeks (wave 1), eighteen months (wave 2) and four years post-disaster (wave 3). Ten years post-disaster (wave 4)the respondents consisted of native Dutch survivors only. Main outcome measures were general distress and symptoms of PTSD.Results:Degree of disaster exposure (sum score) and some disaster-related experiences (such as house destroyed, injured, confusion) were related to distress at waves 2 and 3. This relation was mediated by distress at an earlier point in time. None of the individual disaster-related experiences was independently related to symptoms of distress. The association between the degree of disaster exposure and symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3 was still statistically significant after controlling for symptoms of distress and PTSD at earlier point in time. The variable house destroyed was the only factor that was independently related to symptoms of PTSD at wave 2. Ten years after the disaster, disaster exposure was mediated by symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3. Disaster exposure wasnot independently related to symptoms of PTSD ten years post-disaster.Conclusions:Until 4 years after the disaster, degree of exposure (a sum score) was a risk factor for PTSD symptoms while none of the individual disaster experiences could be identified as an independent risk factor. Ten years post-disaster, disaster exposure was no longer an independent risk factor for symptoms of PTSD. Since symptoms of PTSD and distress at earlier waves perpetuate the symptoms at later waves, health care workers should aim their resources at those who still have symptoms after one and a half year post-disaster, to prevent health problems at medium and long-term.

AB - AbstractBackground:Disaster experiences have been associated with higher prevalence rates of (mental) health problems. The objective of this study was to examine the independent relation between a series of single disaster experiencesversus the independent predictive value of a accumulation of disaster experiences, i.e. a sum score of experiences and symptoms of distress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Methods: Survivors of a fireworks disaster participated in a longitudinal study and completed a questionnaire three weeks (wave 1), eighteen months (wave 2) and four years post-disaster (wave 3). Ten years post-disaster (wave 4)the respondents consisted of native Dutch survivors only. Main outcome measures were general distress and symptoms of PTSD.Results:Degree of disaster exposure (sum score) and some disaster-related experiences (such as house destroyed, injured, confusion) were related to distress at waves 2 and 3. This relation was mediated by distress at an earlier point in time. None of the individual disaster-related experiences was independently related to symptoms of distress. The association between the degree of disaster exposure and symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3 was still statistically significant after controlling for symptoms of distress and PTSD at earlier point in time. The variable house destroyed was the only factor that was independently related to symptoms of PTSD at wave 2. Ten years after the disaster, disaster exposure was mediated by symptoms of PTSD at waves 2 and 3. Disaster exposure wasnot independently related to symptoms of PTSD ten years post-disaster.Conclusions:Until 4 years after the disaster, degree of exposure (a sum score) was a risk factor for PTSD symptoms while none of the individual disaster experiences could be identified as an independent risk factor. Ten years post-disaster, disaster exposure was no longer an independent risk factor for symptoms of PTSD. Since symptoms of PTSD and distress at earlier waves perpetuate the symptoms at later waves, health care workers should aim their resources at those who still have symptoms after one and a half year post-disaster, to prevent health problems at medium and long-term.

U2 - 10.1186/1471-244x-12-147

DO - 10.1186/1471-244x-12-147

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 1

EP - 13

JO - BMC Psychiatry

JF - BMC Psychiatry

SN - 1471-244X

M1 - doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-147

ER -