Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder

A cross-sectional study in 35 countries

E.P.M. Brouwers, J.J.P. Mathijssen, T. van Boxtel, L. Knifton, K. Wahlbeck, C. Van Audenhove, N. Kadri, Ch. Chang, B.R. Goud , D. Ballester, L.F. Tófoli, R. Bello, H. Zäske, I. Milacic, A. Uçok, A. Lasalvia, G. Thornicroft, J. van Weeghel, ASPEN/INDOGO Study Group

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Abstract

Objective:
Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers’ attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known about how stigma and discrimination affect work participation of workers with MDD, especially from their own perspective. We aimed to assess, in a working age population including respondents with MDD from 35 countries: (1) if people with MDD anticipate and experience discrimination when trying to find or keep paid employment; (2) if participants in high, middle and lower developed countries differ in these respects; and (3) if discrimination experiences are related to actual employment status (ie, having a paid job or not).
Method:
Participants in this cross-sectional study (N=834) had a diagnosis of MDD in the previous 12 months. They were interviewed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12). Analysis of variance and generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the data.
Results:
Overall, 62.5% had anticipated and/or experienced discrimination in the work setting. In very high developed countries, almost 60% of respondents had stopped themselves from applying for work, education or training because of anticipated discrimination. Having experienced workplace discrimination was independently related to unemployment.
Conclusions:
Across different countries and cultures, people with MDD very frequently reported discrimination in the work setting. Effective interventions are needed to enhance work participation in people with MDD, focusing simultaneously on decreasing stigma in the work environment and on decreasing self-discrimination by empowering workers with MDD.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere009961
JournalBMJ Open
Volume6
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Major Depressive Disorder
Workplace
Cross-Sectional Studies
Developed Countries
Unemployment
Linear Models
Education

Cite this

Brouwers, E.P.M. ; Mathijssen, J.J.P. ; van Boxtel, T. ; Knifton, L. ; Wahlbeck, K. ; Van Audenhove, C. ; Kadri, N. ; Chang, Ch. ; Goud , B.R. ; Ballester, D. ; Tófoli, L.F. ; Bello, R. ; Zäske, H. ; Milacic, I. ; Uçok, A. ; Lasalvia, A. ; Thornicroft, G. ; van Weeghel, J. ; ASPEN/INDOGO Study Group. / Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder : A cross-sectional study in 35 countries. In: BMJ Open. 2016 ; Vol. 6, No. 2.
@article{a422071dbd1a45d898a23f6cd6446d4e,
title = "Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder: A cross-sectional study in 35 countries",
abstract = "Objective: Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers’ attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known about how stigma and discrimination affect work participation of workers with MDD, especially from their own perspective. We aimed to assess, in a working age population including respondents with MDD from 35 countries: (1) if people with MDD anticipate and experience discrimination when trying to find or keep paid employment; (2) if participants in high, middle and lower developed countries differ in these respects; and (3) if discrimination experiences are related to actual employment status (ie, having a paid job or not).Method: Participants in this cross-sectional study (N=834) had a diagnosis of MDD in the previous 12 months. They were interviewed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12). Analysis of variance and generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the data.Results: Overall, 62.5{\%} had anticipated and/or experienced discrimination in the work setting. In very high developed countries, almost 60{\%} of respondents had stopped themselves from applying for work, education or training because of anticipated discrimination. Having experienced workplace discrimination was independently related to unemployment.Conclusions: Across different countries and cultures, people with MDD very frequently reported discrimination in the work setting. Effective interventions are needed to enhance work participation in people with MDD, focusing simultaneously on decreasing stigma in the work environment and on decreasing self-discrimination by empowering workers with MDD.",
author = "E.P.M. Brouwers and J.J.P. Mathijssen and {van Boxtel}, T. and L. Knifton and K. Wahlbeck and {Van Audenhove}, C. and N. Kadri and Ch. Chang and B.R. Goud and D. Ballester and L.F. T{\'o}foli and R. Bello and M.F. Jorge-Monteiro and H. Z{\"a}ske and I. Milacic and A. U{\cc}ok and A. Lasalvia and G. Thornicroft and {van Weeghel}, J. and {ASPEN/INDOGO Study Group}",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009961",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
journal = "BMJ Open",
issn = "2044-6055",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
number = "2",

}

Brouwers, EPM, Mathijssen, JJP, van Boxtel, T, Knifton, L, Wahlbeck, K, Van Audenhove, C, Kadri, N, Chang, C, Goud , BR, Ballester, D, Tófoli, LF, Bello, R, Zäske, H, Milacic, I, Uçok, A, Lasalvia, A, Thornicroft, G, van Weeghel, J & ASPEN/INDOGO Study Group 2016, 'Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder: A cross-sectional study in 35 countries', BMJ Open, vol. 6, no. 2, e009961. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009961

Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder : A cross-sectional study in 35 countries. / Brouwers, E.P.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; van Boxtel, T.; Knifton, L.; Wahlbeck, K.; Van Audenhove, C.; Kadri, N.; Chang, Ch.; Goud , B.R.; Ballester, D.; Tófoli, L.F.; Bello, R.; Zäske, H.; Milacic, I.; Uçok, A.; Lasalvia, A.; Thornicroft, G.; van Weeghel, J.; ASPEN/INDOGO Study Group.

In: BMJ Open, Vol. 6, No. 2, e009961, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder

T2 - A cross-sectional study in 35 countries

AU - Brouwers, E.P.M.

AU - Mathijssen, J.J.P.

AU - van Boxtel, T.

AU - Knifton, L.

AU - Wahlbeck, K.

AU - Van Audenhove, C.

AU - Kadri, N.

AU - Chang, Ch.

AU - Goud , B.R.

AU - Ballester, D.

AU - Tófoli, L.F.

AU - Bello, R.

AU - Jorge-Monteiro, M.F.

AU - Zäske, H.

AU - Milacic, I.

AU - Uçok, A.

AU - Lasalvia, A.

AU - Thornicroft, G.

AU - van Weeghel, J.

AU - ASPEN/INDOGO Study Group

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Objective: Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers’ attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known about how stigma and discrimination affect work participation of workers with MDD, especially from their own perspective. We aimed to assess, in a working age population including respondents with MDD from 35 countries: (1) if people with MDD anticipate and experience discrimination when trying to find or keep paid employment; (2) if participants in high, middle and lower developed countries differ in these respects; and (3) if discrimination experiences are related to actual employment status (ie, having a paid job or not).Method: Participants in this cross-sectional study (N=834) had a diagnosis of MDD in the previous 12 months. They were interviewed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12). Analysis of variance and generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the data.Results: Overall, 62.5% had anticipated and/or experienced discrimination in the work setting. In very high developed countries, almost 60% of respondents had stopped themselves from applying for work, education or training because of anticipated discrimination. Having experienced workplace discrimination was independently related to unemployment.Conclusions: Across different countries and cultures, people with MDD very frequently reported discrimination in the work setting. Effective interventions are needed to enhance work participation in people with MDD, focusing simultaneously on decreasing stigma in the work environment and on decreasing self-discrimination by empowering workers with MDD.

AB - Objective: Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers’ attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known about how stigma and discrimination affect work participation of workers with MDD, especially from their own perspective. We aimed to assess, in a working age population including respondents with MDD from 35 countries: (1) if people with MDD anticipate and experience discrimination when trying to find or keep paid employment; (2) if participants in high, middle and lower developed countries differ in these respects; and (3) if discrimination experiences are related to actual employment status (ie, having a paid job or not).Method: Participants in this cross-sectional study (N=834) had a diagnosis of MDD in the previous 12 months. They were interviewed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12). Analysis of variance and generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the data.Results: Overall, 62.5% had anticipated and/or experienced discrimination in the work setting. In very high developed countries, almost 60% of respondents had stopped themselves from applying for work, education or training because of anticipated discrimination. Having experienced workplace discrimination was independently related to unemployment.Conclusions: Across different countries and cultures, people with MDD very frequently reported discrimination in the work setting. Effective interventions are needed to enhance work participation in people with MDD, focusing simultaneously on decreasing stigma in the work environment and on decreasing self-discrimination by empowering workers with MDD.

U2 - 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009961

DO - 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009961

M3 - Article

VL - 6

JO - BMJ Open

JF - BMJ Open

SN - 2044-6055

IS - 2

M1 - e009961

ER -