Double dividends of additional water charges in South Africa

J.H. van Heerden, R. van Tol, R. Gerlagh, J.N. Blignaut, S. Hess, M. Horridge, M. Mabugu, R. Mabugu, M. de Wit, T. Letsoalo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to show how double dividends could be obtained from using market instruments to tax water use in a developing country. The double dividends are namely environmental (water conservation) on the one hand, and poverty reduction dividends on the other. We apply a water tax on selected industries in South Africa to reduce demand for water, and then transfer the revenue from this tax to the poor to achieve reduction in absolute levels of poverty. South Africa is classified as a semi-arid country. Precipitation has been fluctuating over the years with an average of 500 mm per annum, well below the world average of about 860 mm (DWAF 2002). The total flow of all the rivers in the country combined amounts to approximately 49 200 million m³ per year, while the National Water Resource Strategy estimated the total water requirement for the year 2000 at 13 280 million m3 per year, excluding environmental requirements. In addition, South Africa is poorly endowed in groundwater as most of the country is underlain by hard rock formations that do not contain any major groundwater aquifers (DWAF 2002). While currently only about 24% of rural people have access to water on site, additional sources of water supply are environmentally, financially and politically hard to develop. At the same time, unemployment in rural areas of South Africa is extremely high, which results in severe poverty conditions in these areas.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNature's Wealth
EditorsP. van Beukering, E. Papyrakis, J. Bouma, R. Brouwer
Place of PublicationCambridge
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages315-332
Number of pages439
ISBN (Print)9781107027152
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Publication series

NameEcology, Biodiversity and Conservation

Fingerprint

poverty
water
groundwater
hard rock
unemployment
water use
rural area
water supply
developing world
water resource
aquifer
market
Africa
industry
river
tax
water conservation
world
demand

Cite this

van Heerden, J. H., van Tol, R., Gerlagh, R., Blignaut, J. N., Hess, S., Horridge, M., ... Letsoalo, T. (2013). Double dividends of additional water charges in South Africa. In P. van Beukering, E. Papyrakis, J. Bouma, & R. Brouwer (Eds.), Nature's Wealth (pp. 315-332). (Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
van Heerden, J.H. ; van Tol, R. ; Gerlagh, R. ; Blignaut, J.N. ; Hess, S. ; Horridge, M. ; Mabugu, M. ; Mabugu, R. ; de Wit, M. ; Letsoalo, T. / Double dividends of additional water charges in South Africa. Nature's Wealth. editor / P. van Beukering ; E. Papyrakis ; J. Bouma ; R. Brouwer. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2013. pp. 315-332 (Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation).
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abstract = "The purpose of this chapter is to show how double dividends could be obtained from using market instruments to tax water use in a developing country. The double dividends are namely environmental (water conservation) on the one hand, and poverty reduction dividends on the other. We apply a water tax on selected industries in South Africa to reduce demand for water, and then transfer the revenue from this tax to the poor to achieve reduction in absolute levels of poverty. South Africa is classified as a semi-arid country. Precipitation has been fluctuating over the years with an average of 500 mm per annum, well below the world average of about 860 mm (DWAF 2002). The total flow of all the rivers in the country combined amounts to approximately 49 200 million m³ per year, while the National Water Resource Strategy estimated the total water requirement for the year 2000 at 13 280 million m3 per year, excluding environmental requirements. In addition, South Africa is poorly endowed in groundwater as most of the country is underlain by hard rock formations that do not contain any major groundwater aquifers (DWAF 2002). While currently only about 24{\%} of rural people have access to water on site, additional sources of water supply are environmentally, financially and politically hard to develop. At the same time, unemployment in rural areas of South Africa is extremely high, which results in severe poverty conditions in these areas.",
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van Heerden, JH, van Tol, R, Gerlagh, R, Blignaut, JN, Hess, S, Horridge, M, Mabugu, M, Mabugu, R, de Wit, M & Letsoalo, T 2013, Double dividends of additional water charges in South Africa. in P van Beukering, E Papyrakis, J Bouma & R Brouwer (eds), Nature's Wealth. Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 315-332.

Double dividends of additional water charges in South Africa. / van Heerden, J.H.; van Tol, R.; Gerlagh, R.; Blignaut, J.N.; Hess, S.; Horridge, M.; Mabugu, M.; Mabugu, R.; de Wit, M.; Letsoalo, T.

Nature's Wealth. ed. / P. van Beukering; E. Papyrakis; J. Bouma; R. Brouwer. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2013. p. 315-332 (Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review

TY - CHAP

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N2 - The purpose of this chapter is to show how double dividends could be obtained from using market instruments to tax water use in a developing country. The double dividends are namely environmental (water conservation) on the one hand, and poverty reduction dividends on the other. We apply a water tax on selected industries in South Africa to reduce demand for water, and then transfer the revenue from this tax to the poor to achieve reduction in absolute levels of poverty. South Africa is classified as a semi-arid country. Precipitation has been fluctuating over the years with an average of 500 mm per annum, well below the world average of about 860 mm (DWAF 2002). The total flow of all the rivers in the country combined amounts to approximately 49 200 million m³ per year, while the National Water Resource Strategy estimated the total water requirement for the year 2000 at 13 280 million m3 per year, excluding environmental requirements. In addition, South Africa is poorly endowed in groundwater as most of the country is underlain by hard rock formations that do not contain any major groundwater aquifers (DWAF 2002). While currently only about 24% of rural people have access to water on site, additional sources of water supply are environmentally, financially and politically hard to develop. At the same time, unemployment in rural areas of South Africa is extremely high, which results in severe poverty conditions in these areas.

AB - The purpose of this chapter is to show how double dividends could be obtained from using market instruments to tax water use in a developing country. The double dividends are namely environmental (water conservation) on the one hand, and poverty reduction dividends on the other. We apply a water tax on selected industries in South Africa to reduce demand for water, and then transfer the revenue from this tax to the poor to achieve reduction in absolute levels of poverty. South Africa is classified as a semi-arid country. Precipitation has been fluctuating over the years with an average of 500 mm per annum, well below the world average of about 860 mm (DWAF 2002). The total flow of all the rivers in the country combined amounts to approximately 49 200 million m³ per year, while the National Water Resource Strategy estimated the total water requirement for the year 2000 at 13 280 million m3 per year, excluding environmental requirements. In addition, South Africa is poorly endowed in groundwater as most of the country is underlain by hard rock formations that do not contain any major groundwater aquifers (DWAF 2002). While currently only about 24% of rural people have access to water on site, additional sources of water supply are environmentally, financially and politically hard to develop. At the same time, unemployment in rural areas of South Africa is extremely high, which results in severe poverty conditions in these areas.

M3 - Chapter

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T3 - Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation

SP - 315

EP - 332

BT - Nature's Wealth

A2 - van Beukering, P.

A2 - Papyrakis, E.

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PB - Cambridge University Press

CY - Cambridge

ER -

van Heerden JH, van Tol R, Gerlagh R, Blignaut JN, Hess S, Horridge M et al. Double dividends of additional water charges in South Africa. In van Beukering P, Papyrakis E, Bouma J, Brouwer R, editors, Nature's Wealth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2013. p. 315-332. (Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation).