Early smoking, education, and labor market performance

Ali Palali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance by using mixed ordered and mixed proportional hazard models. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The probability to finish a scientific degree is 4%-point lower for an early smoker. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market performance is indirect through educational attainment. Once the indirect effect is controlled for there is no direct effect. Moreover, for males only, early smoking has a negative effect on current labor market performance even after conditioning on educational attainment. The probability to have an academic job is 4%-point lower for an early smoker. For females neither education nor labor market performance is affected by early smoking.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-270
Issue number3
Early online date3 Feb 2017
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2017


  • early smoking
  • education
  • labor market performance
  • mixed proportional hazard
  • models
  • discrete factor approach


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