Effect of diet with or without exercise on abdominal fat in postmenopausal women: A randomised trial

Willemijn A. Van Gemert, Petra H. Peeters, Anne M. May, Adriaan J. H. Doornbos, Sjoerd G. Elias, Job Van Der Palen, Wouter Veldhuis, Maaike Stapper, Jantine A. Schuit, Evelyn M. Monninkhof

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    Abstract

    Background
    We assessed the effect of equivalent weight loss with or without exercise on (intra-) abdominal fat in postmenopausal women in the SHAPE-2 study.

    Methods
    The SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed randomised controlled trial conducted in 2012–2013 in the Netherlands. Postmenopausal overweight women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), exercise plus diet (n = 98) or control group (n = 48). Both intervention groups aimed for equivalent weight loss (6–7%) following a calorie-restricted diet (diet group) or a partly supervised intensive exercise programme (4 h per week) combined with a small caloric restriction (exercise plus diet group). Outcomes after 16 weeks are amount and distribution of abdominal fat, measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the use of the three-point IDEAL Dixon method.

    Results
    The diet and exercise plus diet group lost 6.1 and 6.9% body weight, respectively. Compared to controls, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat reduced significantly with both diet (− 12.5% and − 12.0%) and exercise plus diet (− 16.0% and − 14.6%). Direct comparison between both interventions revealed that the reduction in subcutaneous fat was statistically significantly larger in the group that combined exercise with diet: an additional 10.6 cm2 (95%CI -18.7; − 2.4) was lost compared to the diet-only group. Intra-abdominal fat loss was not significantly larger in the exercise plus diet group (− 3.8 cm2, 95%CI -9.0; 1.3).

    Conclusions
    We conclude that weight loss of 6–7% with diet or with exercise plus diet reduced both subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat. Only subcutaneous fat statistically significantly reduced to a larger extent when exercise is combined with a small caloric restriction.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number174
    Number of pages9
    JournalBMC Public Health
    Volume19
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2019

    Fingerprint

    Abdominal Fat
    Exercise
    Intra-Abdominal Fat
    Caloric Restriction
    Subcutaneous Fat
    Netherlands

    Keywords

    • Abdominal Fat
    • Aged
    • Caloric Restriction
    • Exercise
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Middle Aged
    • Netherlands
    • Obesity
    • Overweight/prevention & control
    • Postmenopause
    • Program Evaluation
    • Weight Reduction Programs/methods
    • Intra-abdominal fat
    • Weight loss
    • INTENSITY
    • MARKERS
    • WEIGHT-LOSS
    • RISK
    • OBESITY
    • RESISTANCE
    • Subcutaneous fat
    • AEROBIC EXERCISE

    Cite this

    Van Gemert, W. A., Peeters, P. H., May, A. M., Doornbos, A. J. H., Elias, S. G., Van Der Palen, J., ... Monninkhof, E. M. (2019). Effect of diet with or without exercise on abdominal fat in postmenopausal women: A randomised trial. BMC Public Health, 19(1), [174]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6510-1
    Van Gemert, Willemijn A. ; Peeters, Petra H. ; May, Anne M. ; Doornbos, Adriaan J. H. ; Elias, Sjoerd G. ; Van Der Palen, Job ; Veldhuis, Wouter ; Stapper, Maaike ; Schuit, Jantine A. ; Monninkhof, Evelyn M. / Effect of diet with or without exercise on abdominal fat in postmenopausal women : A randomised trial. In: BMC Public Health. 2019 ; Vol. 19, No. 1.
    @article{fd7a96564bad49d6a41cecc5727a6f19,
    title = "Effect of diet with or without exercise on abdominal fat in postmenopausal women: A randomised trial",
    abstract = "BackgroundWe assessed the effect of equivalent weight loss with or without exercise on (intra-) abdominal fat in postmenopausal women in the SHAPE-2 study.MethodsThe SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed randomised controlled trial conducted in 2012–2013 in the Netherlands. Postmenopausal overweight women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), exercise plus diet (n = 98) or control group (n = 48). Both intervention groups aimed for equivalent weight loss (6–7{\%}) following a calorie-restricted diet (diet group) or a partly supervised intensive exercise programme (4 h per week) combined with a small caloric restriction (exercise plus diet group). Outcomes after 16 weeks are amount and distribution of abdominal fat, measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the use of the three-point IDEAL Dixon method.ResultsThe diet and exercise plus diet group lost 6.1 and 6.9{\%} body weight, respectively. Compared to controls, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat reduced significantly with both diet (− 12.5{\%} and − 12.0{\%}) and exercise plus diet (− 16.0{\%} and − 14.6{\%}). Direct comparison between both interventions revealed that the reduction in subcutaneous fat was statistically significantly larger in the group that combined exercise with diet: an additional 10.6 cm2 (95{\%}CI -18.7; − 2.4) was lost compared to the diet-only group. Intra-abdominal fat loss was not significantly larger in the exercise plus diet group (− 3.8 cm2, 95{\%}CI -9.0; 1.3).ConclusionsWe conclude that weight loss of 6–7{\%} with diet or with exercise plus diet reduced both subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat. Only subcutaneous fat statistically significantly reduced to a larger extent when exercise is combined with a small caloric restriction.",
    keywords = "Abdominal Fat, Aged, Caloric Restriction, Exercise, Female, Humans, Middle Aged, Netherlands, Obesity, Overweight/prevention & control, Postmenopause, Program Evaluation, Weight Reduction Programs/methods, Intra-abdominal fat, Weight loss, INTENSITY, MARKERS, WEIGHT-LOSS, RISK, OBESITY, RESISTANCE, Subcutaneous fat, AEROBIC EXERCISE",
    author = "{Van Gemert}, {Willemijn A.} and Peeters, {Petra H.} and May, {Anne M.} and Doornbos, {Adriaan J. H.} and Elias, {Sjoerd G.} and {Van Der Palen}, Job and Wouter Veldhuis and Maaike Stapper and Schuit, {Jantine A.} and Monninkhof, {Evelyn M.}",
    note = "Niet geaffilieerd met TiU",
    year = "2019",
    doi = "10.1186/s12889-019-6510-1",
    language = "English",
    volume = "19",
    journal = "BMC Public Health",
    issn = "1471-2458",
    publisher = "BMC",
    number = "1",

    }

    Van Gemert, WA, Peeters, PH, May, AM, Doornbos, AJH, Elias, SG, Van Der Palen, J, Veldhuis, W, Stapper, M, Schuit, JA & Monninkhof, EM 2019, 'Effect of diet with or without exercise on abdominal fat in postmenopausal women: A randomised trial' BMC Public Health, vol. 19, no. 1, 174. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6510-1

    Effect of diet with or without exercise on abdominal fat in postmenopausal women : A randomised trial. / Van Gemert, Willemijn A.; Peeters, Petra H.; May, Anne M.; Doornbos, Adriaan J. H.; Elias, Sjoerd G.; Van Der Palen, Job; Veldhuis, Wouter; Stapper, Maaike; Schuit, Jantine A.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 19, No. 1, 174, 2019.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Effect of diet with or without exercise on abdominal fat in postmenopausal women

    T2 - A randomised trial

    AU - Van Gemert, Willemijn A.

    AU - Peeters, Petra H.

    AU - May, Anne M.

    AU - Doornbos, Adriaan J. H.

    AU - Elias, Sjoerd G.

    AU - Van Der Palen, Job

    AU - Veldhuis, Wouter

    AU - Stapper, Maaike

    AU - Schuit, Jantine A.

    AU - Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    N1 - Niet geaffilieerd met TiU

    PY - 2019

    Y1 - 2019

    N2 - BackgroundWe assessed the effect of equivalent weight loss with or without exercise on (intra-) abdominal fat in postmenopausal women in the SHAPE-2 study.MethodsThe SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed randomised controlled trial conducted in 2012–2013 in the Netherlands. Postmenopausal overweight women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), exercise plus diet (n = 98) or control group (n = 48). Both intervention groups aimed for equivalent weight loss (6–7%) following a calorie-restricted diet (diet group) or a partly supervised intensive exercise programme (4 h per week) combined with a small caloric restriction (exercise plus diet group). Outcomes after 16 weeks are amount and distribution of abdominal fat, measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the use of the three-point IDEAL Dixon method.ResultsThe diet and exercise plus diet group lost 6.1 and 6.9% body weight, respectively. Compared to controls, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat reduced significantly with both diet (− 12.5% and − 12.0%) and exercise plus diet (− 16.0% and − 14.6%). Direct comparison between both interventions revealed that the reduction in subcutaneous fat was statistically significantly larger in the group that combined exercise with diet: an additional 10.6 cm2 (95%CI -18.7; − 2.4) was lost compared to the diet-only group. Intra-abdominal fat loss was not significantly larger in the exercise plus diet group (− 3.8 cm2, 95%CI -9.0; 1.3).ConclusionsWe conclude that weight loss of 6–7% with diet or with exercise plus diet reduced both subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat. Only subcutaneous fat statistically significantly reduced to a larger extent when exercise is combined with a small caloric restriction.

    AB - BackgroundWe assessed the effect of equivalent weight loss with or without exercise on (intra-) abdominal fat in postmenopausal women in the SHAPE-2 study.MethodsThe SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed randomised controlled trial conducted in 2012–2013 in the Netherlands. Postmenopausal overweight women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), exercise plus diet (n = 98) or control group (n = 48). Both intervention groups aimed for equivalent weight loss (6–7%) following a calorie-restricted diet (diet group) or a partly supervised intensive exercise programme (4 h per week) combined with a small caloric restriction (exercise plus diet group). Outcomes after 16 weeks are amount and distribution of abdominal fat, measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the use of the three-point IDEAL Dixon method.ResultsThe diet and exercise plus diet group lost 6.1 and 6.9% body weight, respectively. Compared to controls, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat reduced significantly with both diet (− 12.5% and − 12.0%) and exercise plus diet (− 16.0% and − 14.6%). Direct comparison between both interventions revealed that the reduction in subcutaneous fat was statistically significantly larger in the group that combined exercise with diet: an additional 10.6 cm2 (95%CI -18.7; − 2.4) was lost compared to the diet-only group. Intra-abdominal fat loss was not significantly larger in the exercise plus diet group (− 3.8 cm2, 95%CI -9.0; 1.3).ConclusionsWe conclude that weight loss of 6–7% with diet or with exercise plus diet reduced both subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat. Only subcutaneous fat statistically significantly reduced to a larger extent when exercise is combined with a small caloric restriction.

    KW - Abdominal Fat

    KW - Aged

    KW - Caloric Restriction

    KW - Exercise

    KW - Female

    KW - Humans

    KW - Middle Aged

    KW - Netherlands

    KW - Obesity

    KW - Overweight/prevention & control

    KW - Postmenopause

    KW - Program Evaluation

    KW - Weight Reduction Programs/methods

    KW - Intra-abdominal fat

    KW - Weight loss

    KW - INTENSITY

    KW - MARKERS

    KW - WEIGHT-LOSS

    KW - RISK

    KW - OBESITY

    KW - RESISTANCE

    KW - Subcutaneous fat

    KW - AEROBIC EXERCISE

    U2 - 10.1186/s12889-019-6510-1

    DO - 10.1186/s12889-019-6510-1

    M3 - Article

    VL - 19

    JO - BMC Public Health

    JF - BMC Public Health

    SN - 1471-2458

    IS - 1

    M1 - 174

    ER -