Effect of exercise on insulin sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women

The SHAPE study

Willemijn A van Gemert, Evelyn M Monninkhof, Anne M May, Petra H Peeters, A.J. Schuit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background:

An inactive lifestyle is a risk factor for several types of cancer. A proposed pathway through which exercise influences cancer risk is via insulin. We aim to investigate the effect of a one-year exercise intervention on insulin sensitivity, and the role of body fat in this association, in healthy, normal to overweight/obese, postmenopausal women.

Methods:

In the Sex Hormones And Physical Exercise (SHAPE) study, 189 healthy, inactive and postmenopausal women [ages, 50-69 years; body mass index (BMI), 22-40 kg/m(2)] were randomly assigned to a one-year aerobic and strength exercise intervention (150 min/wk), or a control group. Between-group differences in fasting insulin, glucose, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2) over time were estimated using linear mixed models.

Results:

Follow-up measurements of insulin sensitivity were available for 181 (95.8%) and 182 (96.3%) women at 4 and 12 months, respectively. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences between the two study groups [treatment effect ratio of the exercise group vs. control (β; 95% confidence interval): insulin, β, 1.07 (0.96-1.19); glucose, β, 1.01 (0.99-1.02); and HOMA2, β, 1.07 (0.96-1.20)]. Similar results were found in a per protocol analysis in compliant women, and in a subgroup of women who lost >2% body fat [measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)].

Conclusions:

Participation in a one-year aerobic and strength exercise intervention program did not result in changes in insulin sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal and inactive women.

Impact:

Our findings suggest that 150 min/wk of exercise, as recommended by current guidelines, is not enough to achieve improvements in insulin sensitivity and subsequent cancer risk, in healthy postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-87
JournalCancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Volume24
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2015
Externally publishedYes

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Insulin Resistance
Exercise
Adipose Tissue
Neoplasms
Intention to Treat Analysis
Photon Absorptiometry
Linear Models
Fasting
Body Mass Index
Confidence Intervals

Keywords

  • Aged
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Middle Aged
  • Postmenopause
  • Risk Factors
  • Sedentary Lifestyle
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Women's Health
  • Journal Article
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Cite this

van Gemert, Willemijn A ; Monninkhof, Evelyn M ; May, Anne M ; Peeters, Petra H ; Schuit, A.J. / Effect of exercise on insulin sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women : The SHAPE study. In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention . 2015 ; Vol. 24, No. 1. pp. 81-87.
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abstract = "Background: An inactive lifestyle is a risk factor for several types of cancer. A proposed pathway through which exercise influences cancer risk is via insulin. We aim to investigate the effect of a one-year exercise intervention on insulin sensitivity, and the role of body fat in this association, in healthy, normal to overweight/obese, postmenopausal women.Methods: In the Sex Hormones And Physical Exercise (SHAPE) study, 189 healthy, inactive and postmenopausal women [ages, 50-69 years; body mass index (BMI), 22-40 kg/m(2)] were randomly assigned to a one-year aerobic and strength exercise intervention (150 min/wk), or a control group. Between-group differences in fasting insulin, glucose, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2) over time were estimated using linear mixed models.Results: Follow-up measurements of insulin sensitivity were available for 181 (95.8{\%}) and 182 (96.3{\%}) women at 4 and 12 months, respectively. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences between the two study groups [treatment effect ratio of the exercise group vs. control (β; 95{\%} confidence interval): insulin, β, 1.07 (0.96-1.19); glucose, β, 1.01 (0.99-1.02); and HOMA2, β, 1.07 (0.96-1.20)]. Similar results were found in a per protocol analysis in compliant women, and in a subgroup of women who lost >2{\%} body fat [measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)].Conclusions: Participation in a one-year aerobic and strength exercise intervention program did not result in changes in insulin sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal and inactive women.Impact: Our findings suggest that 150 min/wk of exercise, as recommended by current guidelines, is not enough to achieve improvements in insulin sensitivity and subsequent cancer risk, in healthy postmenopausal women.",
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Effect of exercise on insulin sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women : The SHAPE study. / van Gemert, Willemijn A; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; May, Anne M; Peeters, Petra H; Schuit, A.J.

In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention , Vol. 24, No. 1, 01.2015, p. 81-87.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of exercise on insulin sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women

T2 - The SHAPE study

AU - van Gemert, Willemijn A

AU - Monninkhof, Evelyn M

AU - May, Anne M

AU - Peeters, Petra H

AU - Schuit, A.J.

N1 - ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

PY - 2015/1

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N2 - Background: An inactive lifestyle is a risk factor for several types of cancer. A proposed pathway through which exercise influences cancer risk is via insulin. We aim to investigate the effect of a one-year exercise intervention on insulin sensitivity, and the role of body fat in this association, in healthy, normal to overweight/obese, postmenopausal women.Methods: In the Sex Hormones And Physical Exercise (SHAPE) study, 189 healthy, inactive and postmenopausal women [ages, 50-69 years; body mass index (BMI), 22-40 kg/m(2)] were randomly assigned to a one-year aerobic and strength exercise intervention (150 min/wk), or a control group. Between-group differences in fasting insulin, glucose, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2) over time were estimated using linear mixed models.Results: Follow-up measurements of insulin sensitivity were available for 181 (95.8%) and 182 (96.3%) women at 4 and 12 months, respectively. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences between the two study groups [treatment effect ratio of the exercise group vs. control (β; 95% confidence interval): insulin, β, 1.07 (0.96-1.19); glucose, β, 1.01 (0.99-1.02); and HOMA2, β, 1.07 (0.96-1.20)]. Similar results were found in a per protocol analysis in compliant women, and in a subgroup of women who lost >2% body fat [measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)].Conclusions: Participation in a one-year aerobic and strength exercise intervention program did not result in changes in insulin sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal and inactive women.Impact: Our findings suggest that 150 min/wk of exercise, as recommended by current guidelines, is not enough to achieve improvements in insulin sensitivity and subsequent cancer risk, in healthy postmenopausal women.

AB - Background: An inactive lifestyle is a risk factor for several types of cancer. A proposed pathway through which exercise influences cancer risk is via insulin. We aim to investigate the effect of a one-year exercise intervention on insulin sensitivity, and the role of body fat in this association, in healthy, normal to overweight/obese, postmenopausal women.Methods: In the Sex Hormones And Physical Exercise (SHAPE) study, 189 healthy, inactive and postmenopausal women [ages, 50-69 years; body mass index (BMI), 22-40 kg/m(2)] were randomly assigned to a one-year aerobic and strength exercise intervention (150 min/wk), or a control group. Between-group differences in fasting insulin, glucose, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2) over time were estimated using linear mixed models.Results: Follow-up measurements of insulin sensitivity were available for 181 (95.8%) and 182 (96.3%) women at 4 and 12 months, respectively. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences between the two study groups [treatment effect ratio of the exercise group vs. control (β; 95% confidence interval): insulin, β, 1.07 (0.96-1.19); glucose, β, 1.01 (0.99-1.02); and HOMA2, β, 1.07 (0.96-1.20)]. Similar results were found in a per protocol analysis in compliant women, and in a subgroup of women who lost >2% body fat [measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)].Conclusions: Participation in a one-year aerobic and strength exercise intervention program did not result in changes in insulin sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal and inactive women.Impact: Our findings suggest that 150 min/wk of exercise, as recommended by current guidelines, is not enough to achieve improvements in insulin sensitivity and subsequent cancer risk, in healthy postmenopausal women.

KW - Aged

KW - Exercise

KW - Female

KW - Healthy Volunteers

KW - Humans

KW - Insulin Resistance

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Postmenopause

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Sedentary Lifestyle

KW - Treatment Outcome

KW - Women's Health

KW - Journal Article

KW - Randomized Controlled Trial

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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DO - 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0722

M3 - Article

VL - 24

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JO - Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

JF - Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

SN - 1055-9965

IS - 1

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