This experimental study examined if emotional experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy during music listening and if individual differences in effects of strategies can be explained by person characteristics. Adults (N = 466) completed questionnaires and rated emotions. They were randomly assigned to a condition, in which they applied an emotion regulation strategy (suppression, enhancement, neutral) when listening to a music fragment. Next, participants rated emotions again. MANCOVA showed that individuals who applied enhancement experienced the strongest increase in emotion intensity. Age, neuroticism, extraversion, and positive trait affect predicted individual differences in effects of enhancement and suppression, e.g., especially more neurotic and introverted individuals experienced increased emotion intensity when applying enhancement. This study shows that emotional experience can be intensified by music listening, which can be facilitated by applying enhancement. Applying an emotion regulation strategy during music listening seems especially effective when it matches person characteristics.
Karreman, A., Laceulle, O. M., Hanser, W. E., & Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M. (2017). Effects of emotion regulation strategies on music elicited emotions: An experimental study explaining individual differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 114, 36-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.03.059