Emotion expressivity in the Dutch: Validation of the Dutch translation of the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire

Nina Kupper*, Stefanie Duijndam, Annemiek Karreman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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When examining emotions and emotion regulation, we discriminate between emotion experience and emotion expressivity. Research shows that the two are modestly related. The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire (BEQ) was designed to assess positive and negative expressivity, as well as the intensity of the expressive behavior. The current article reports on 2 studies that examined the reliability and validity of the Dutch translation of the BEQ. In Study 1, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of the BEQ items in two samples that differed in age (young adults and adults), correlated the facet and total scores with measures of behavioral control, affective response tendencies, and emotion regulation strategies, and examined sex differences. Results confirmed the three-factor structure and further showed that factors were correlated, and
two items loaded on all factors. Internal consistency was good, and test–retest reliability was excellent. As expected, emotion expression was larger in women. Convergent and divergent validity were confirmed. Behavioral control measures were inversely related to emotion expression. Although neuroticism and depression were associated with negative expressivity, extraversion, openness, and agreeableness were associated with positive expressivity. Emotion regulation strategies generally showed association patterns in the expected
directions. In Study 2, we report on the predictive value of the BEQ facet scores for the emotional response to acute social evaluative stress. Results showed that only expression intensity was significantly associated with a larger emotional stress response. In conclusion, the Dutch version of Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument to be used in the Dutch setting
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E28-E34
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire
  • Dutch
  • emotion expressivity
  • validation


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