The study of the psychological characteristics of violent offenders has attracted a growing body of research in recent years. Two of the most investigated constructs are represented by negative emotionality and self-esteem. Despite their partial overlapping, these two aspects have rarely been studied together, especially among offenders. Aim of the present study was to confirm and expand previous research by exploring the levels of negative emotionality and self-esteem in a sample of incarcerated violent offenders. As expected, when compared with a community sample, offendersreported higher rates of negative emotionality and lower self-esteem. Moreover, subsequent analyses suggested that these two construct represent distinct, albeit slightly overlapping, aspects of offenders’ psychological functioning.