Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2

Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity

Research output: Working paperDiscussion paperOther research output

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Abstract

We explore the emissions income relationship for CO2 in OECD countries using various modelling strategies.Even for this relatively homogeneous sample, we find that the inverted-U-shaped curve is quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity included in the panel estimations.This finding is robust, not only across different model specifications but also across estimation techniques, including the more flexible non-parametric approach.Differences in restrictions applied in panel estimations are therefore responsible for the widely divergent findings for an inverted-U shape for CO2.Our findings suggest that allowing for enough heterogeneity is essential to prevent spurious correlation from reduced-form panel estimations.Moreover, this inverted U for CO2 is likely to exist for many, but not for all, countries.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationTilburg
PublisherEconometrics
Number of pages40
Volume2005-25
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Publication series

NameCentER Discussion Paper
Volume2005-25

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Environmental Kuznets curve
Homogeneity
Panel estimation
Co2
Inverted-U
Reduced form
Income
OECD countries
Model specification
Modeling
Spurious correlation

Keywords

  • Environmental Kuznets Curves
  • (Semi)parametric Estimation
  • Heterogeneity

Cite this

Vollebergh, H. R. J., Dijkgraaf, E., & Melenberg, B. (2005). Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2: Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity. (CentER Discussion Paper; Vol. 2005-25). Tilburg: Econometrics.
Vollebergh, H.R.J. ; Dijkgraaf, E. ; Melenberg, B. / Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2 : Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity. Tilburg : Econometrics, 2005. (CentER Discussion Paper).
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Vollebergh, HRJ, Dijkgraaf, E & Melenberg, B 2005 'Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2: Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity' CentER Discussion Paper, vol. 2005-25, Econometrics, Tilburg.

Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2 : Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity. / Vollebergh, H.R.J.; Dijkgraaf, E.; Melenberg, B.

Tilburg : Econometrics, 2005. (CentER Discussion Paper; Vol. 2005-25).

Research output: Working paperDiscussion paperOther research output

TY - UNPB

T1 - Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2

T2 - Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity

AU - Vollebergh, H.R.J.

AU - Dijkgraaf, E.

AU - Melenberg, B.

N1 - Subsequently published in the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management (2009) (revised version) Pagination: 40

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - We explore the emissions income relationship for CO2 in OECD countries using various modelling strategies.Even for this relatively homogeneous sample, we find that the inverted-U-shaped curve is quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity included in the panel estimations.This finding is robust, not only across different model specifications but also across estimation techniques, including the more flexible non-parametric approach.Differences in restrictions applied in panel estimations are therefore responsible for the widely divergent findings for an inverted-U shape for CO2.Our findings suggest that allowing for enough heterogeneity is essential to prevent spurious correlation from reduced-form panel estimations.Moreover, this inverted U for CO2 is likely to exist for many, but not for all, countries.

AB - We explore the emissions income relationship for CO2 in OECD countries using various modelling strategies.Even for this relatively homogeneous sample, we find that the inverted-U-shaped curve is quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity included in the panel estimations.This finding is robust, not only across different model specifications but also across estimation techniques, including the more flexible non-parametric approach.Differences in restrictions applied in panel estimations are therefore responsible for the widely divergent findings for an inverted-U shape for CO2.Our findings suggest that allowing for enough heterogeneity is essential to prevent spurious correlation from reduced-form panel estimations.Moreover, this inverted U for CO2 is likely to exist for many, but not for all, countries.

KW - Environmental Kuznets Curves

KW - (Semi)parametric Estimation

KW - Heterogeneity

M3 - Discussion paper

VL - 2005-25

T3 - CentER Discussion Paper

BT - Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2

PB - Econometrics

CY - Tilburg

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Vollebergh HRJ, Dijkgraaf E, Melenberg B. Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2: Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity. Tilburg: Econometrics. 2005. (CentER Discussion Paper).