Examining the role of rehearsal in old-old adults' working memory

Alexandra Hering*, Mirjam Rautenberg, Paula von Bloh, Katharina Schnitzspahn, Nicola Ballhausen, Andreas Ihle, Prune Lagner, Matthias Kliegel, Katharina Zinke

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

We investigated the role of rehearsal in verbal working memory (WM) and whether WM capacity can be improved by a rehearsal instruction in very old age. In two experiments, we tested a total of 78 old-old adults (75years and above) in one experimental session consisting of three assessment phases. First, participants worked on three different WM span tasks to assess their baseline performance. In the next phase, half of the participants received a rehearsal instruction to practice on two of the WM tasks, whereas the other half received no strategy instruction (Experiment 1) or worked on a filler task (Experiment 2). In the final phase, participants again worked on the three WM tasks. In Experiment 1, we found significant improvements for the WM tasks over time in both groups. However, we could not find a specific improvement for the rehearsal instruction due to a high spontaneous strategy use in the control group. When minimizing spontaneous strategy use in Experiment 2 by changing the task material, we found larger improvements in the instruction compared to the control group. However, we still found substantial spontaneous strategy use in the control group. The results indicate that rehearsal, as an essential component of verbal WM, is still intact and efficient in old-old adults. Furthermore, the spontaneous strategy use indicates that old-olds use their existing skills to cope with increasing WM demands. Finally, old-old adults benefited from an explicit rehearsal instruction showing potentials to boost WM capacity in this age group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-71
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Ageing
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Working memory
  • Strategy
  • Rehearsal
  • Ageing
  • Old-olds
  • SHORT-TERM-MEMORY
  • PROCESSING-SPEED
  • STRATEGY USE
  • PERFORMANCE
  • AGE

Cite this

Hering, A., Rautenberg, M., von Bloh, P., Schnitzspahn, K., Ballhausen, N., Ihle, A., ... Zinke, K. (2019). Examining the role of rehearsal in old-old adults' working memory. European Journal of Ageing, 16(1), 63-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-018-0461-8
Hering, Alexandra ; Rautenberg, Mirjam ; von Bloh, Paula ; Schnitzspahn, Katharina ; Ballhausen, Nicola ; Ihle, Andreas ; Lagner, Prune ; Kliegel, Matthias ; Zinke, Katharina. / Examining the role of rehearsal in old-old adults' working memory. In: European Journal of Ageing. 2019 ; Vol. 16, No. 1. pp. 63-71.
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abstract = "We investigated the role of rehearsal in verbal working memory (WM) and whether WM capacity can be improved by a rehearsal instruction in very old age. In two experiments, we tested a total of 78 old-old adults (75years and above) in one experimental session consisting of three assessment phases. First, participants worked on three different WM span tasks to assess their baseline performance. In the next phase, half of the participants received a rehearsal instruction to practice on two of the WM tasks, whereas the other half received no strategy instruction (Experiment 1) or worked on a filler task (Experiment 2). In the final phase, participants again worked on the three WM tasks. In Experiment 1, we found significant improvements for the WM tasks over time in both groups. However, we could not find a specific improvement for the rehearsal instruction due to a high spontaneous strategy use in the control group. When minimizing spontaneous strategy use in Experiment 2 by changing the task material, we found larger improvements in the instruction compared to the control group. However, we still found substantial spontaneous strategy use in the control group. The results indicate that rehearsal, as an essential component of verbal WM, is still intact and efficient in old-old adults. Furthermore, the spontaneous strategy use indicates that old-olds use their existing skills to cope with increasing WM demands. Finally, old-old adults benefited from an explicit rehearsal instruction showing potentials to boost WM capacity in this age group.",
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Hering, A, Rautenberg, M, von Bloh, P, Schnitzspahn, K, Ballhausen, N, Ihle, A, Lagner, P, Kliegel, M & Zinke, K 2019, 'Examining the role of rehearsal in old-old adults' working memory', European Journal of Ageing, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 63-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-018-0461-8

Examining the role of rehearsal in old-old adults' working memory. / Hering, Alexandra; Rautenberg, Mirjam; von Bloh, Paula; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Ballhausen, Nicola; Ihle, Andreas; Lagner, Prune; Kliegel, Matthias; Zinke, Katharina.

In: European Journal of Ageing, Vol. 16, No. 1, 03.2019, p. 63-71.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Hering, Alexandra

AU - Rautenberg, Mirjam

AU - von Bloh, Paula

AU - Schnitzspahn, Katharina

AU - Ballhausen, Nicola

AU - Ihle, Andreas

AU - Lagner, Prune

AU - Kliegel, Matthias

AU - Zinke, Katharina

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N2 - We investigated the role of rehearsal in verbal working memory (WM) and whether WM capacity can be improved by a rehearsal instruction in very old age. In two experiments, we tested a total of 78 old-old adults (75years and above) in one experimental session consisting of three assessment phases. First, participants worked on three different WM span tasks to assess their baseline performance. In the next phase, half of the participants received a rehearsal instruction to practice on two of the WM tasks, whereas the other half received no strategy instruction (Experiment 1) or worked on a filler task (Experiment 2). In the final phase, participants again worked on the three WM tasks. In Experiment 1, we found significant improvements for the WM tasks over time in both groups. However, we could not find a specific improvement for the rehearsal instruction due to a high spontaneous strategy use in the control group. When minimizing spontaneous strategy use in Experiment 2 by changing the task material, we found larger improvements in the instruction compared to the control group. However, we still found substantial spontaneous strategy use in the control group. The results indicate that rehearsal, as an essential component of verbal WM, is still intact and efficient in old-old adults. Furthermore, the spontaneous strategy use indicates that old-olds use their existing skills to cope with increasing WM demands. Finally, old-old adults benefited from an explicit rehearsal instruction showing potentials to boost WM capacity in this age group.

AB - We investigated the role of rehearsal in verbal working memory (WM) and whether WM capacity can be improved by a rehearsal instruction in very old age. In two experiments, we tested a total of 78 old-old adults (75years and above) in one experimental session consisting of three assessment phases. First, participants worked on three different WM span tasks to assess their baseline performance. In the next phase, half of the participants received a rehearsal instruction to practice on two of the WM tasks, whereas the other half received no strategy instruction (Experiment 1) or worked on a filler task (Experiment 2). In the final phase, participants again worked on the three WM tasks. In Experiment 1, we found significant improvements for the WM tasks over time in both groups. However, we could not find a specific improvement for the rehearsal instruction due to a high spontaneous strategy use in the control group. When minimizing spontaneous strategy use in Experiment 2 by changing the task material, we found larger improvements in the instruction compared to the control group. However, we still found substantial spontaneous strategy use in the control group. The results indicate that rehearsal, as an essential component of verbal WM, is still intact and efficient in old-old adults. Furthermore, the spontaneous strategy use indicates that old-olds use their existing skills to cope with increasing WM demands. Finally, old-old adults benefited from an explicit rehearsal instruction showing potentials to boost WM capacity in this age group.

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KW - Rehearsal

KW - Ageing

KW - Old-olds

KW - SHORT-TERM-MEMORY

KW - PROCESSING-SPEED

KW - STRATEGY USE

KW - PERFORMANCE

KW - AGE

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DO - 10.1007/s10433-018-0461-8

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JO - European Journal of Ageing

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