Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying temperamental structure of the Dutch Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; B. Van den Bergh & M. Ackx, 2003) was identical for children who stutter (CWS), typically developing children (TDC), and children with vocal nodules (CWVN). Method A principal axis factor analysis was performed on data obtained with the Dutch CBQ from 69 CWS, 149 TDC, and 41 CWVN. All children were between the ages of 3;0 (years;months) and 8;11. Results Results indicated a 3-factor solution, identified as Extraversion/Surgency, Negative Affect, and Effortful Control, for each of the participant groups, showing considerable similarity to previously published U.S., Chinese, Japanese, and Dutch samples. Congruence coefficients were highest for CWS and TDC and somewhat more modest when comparing CWVN and TDC. The Effortful Control factor consistently yielded the lowest congruence coefficients. Conclusion These data confirm that although stuttering, voice-disordered, and typically developing children may differ quantitatively with regard to mean scores on temperament scales, they are similar in terms of their overall underlying temperament structure. The equivalence of temperament structure provides a basis for further comparison of mean group scores on the individual temperament scales.