Fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes

Results from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands

G.M. Nefs, S.E. Bevelander, C. Hendrieckx, M. Bot, J. Ruige, J. Speight, F. Pouwer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Aims
To examine sociodemographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes.
Methods
Data were obtained from Diabetes MILES – The Netherlands, an online self-report national survey. This cross-sectional analysis focused on participants with Type 1 diabetes who completed the 18-item Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey – Second Version Worry subscale (HFS–II–W; possible total score range 0–72, higher scores indicating higher fear) (n = 288). To explore correlates of fear of hypoglycaemia, a hierarchical linear regression analysis was performed in participants with full data on sociodemographic, clinical and psychological factors (n = 232; younger and more highly educated than those excluded).ResultsHFS–II–W mean score was 11.1 ± 11.1. Gender, age, education and having a partner (model 1) were not associated with fear of hypoglycaemia. In model 2, history of severe hypoglycaemia (irrespective of number of events) was associated with (greater) fear of hypoglycaemia, whereas diabetes duration, pump therapy and HbA1c were not. Type D personality was positively correlated (model 3), as were symptoms of depression, but not anxiety (model 4). Adding loneliness (model 5) did not improve the model. The fully adjusted analysis showed that fear of hypoglycaemia was associated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.38, P < 0.001) and history of hypoglycaemia (1–2 events: β = 0.30, P < 0.001; ≥ 3 events: β = 0.19, P = 0.002). Total explained variance was 23%.
Conclusions
Depressive symptoms and history of hypoglycaemia are associated with fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes. These factors may help to identify people with excessive fear, who may particularly benefit from interventions to reduce hypoglycaemia risk and worries.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1289-1296
JournalDiabetic Medicine: Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Volume32
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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Hypoglycemia
Netherlands
Depression
Loneliness
Self Report
Linear Models
Cross-Sectional Studies
Education

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Nefs, G.M. ; Bevelander, S.E. ; Hendrieckx, C. ; Bot, M. ; Ruige, J. ; Speight, J. ; Pouwer, F. / Fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands . In: Diabetic Medicine: Journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2015 ; Vol. 32, No. 10. pp. 1289-1296.
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abstract = "AimsTo examine sociodemographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes.MethodsData were obtained from Diabetes MILES – The Netherlands, an online self-report national survey. This cross-sectional analysis focused on participants with Type 1 diabetes who completed the 18-item Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey – Second Version Worry subscale (HFS–II–W; possible total score range 0–72, higher scores indicating higher fear) (n = 288). To explore correlates of fear of hypoglycaemia, a hierarchical linear regression analysis was performed in participants with full data on sociodemographic, clinical and psychological factors (n = 232; younger and more highly educated than those excluded).ResultsHFS–II–W mean score was 11.1 ± 11.1. Gender, age, education and having a partner (model 1) were not associated with fear of hypoglycaemia. In model 2, history of severe hypoglycaemia (irrespective of number of events) was associated with (greater) fear of hypoglycaemia, whereas diabetes duration, pump therapy and HbA1c were not. Type D personality was positively correlated (model 3), as were symptoms of depression, but not anxiety (model 4). Adding loneliness (model 5) did not improve the model. The fully adjusted analysis showed that fear of hypoglycaemia was associated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.38, P < 0.001) and history of hypoglycaemia (1–2 events: β = 0.30, P < 0.001; ≥ 3 events: β = 0.19, P = 0.002). Total explained variance was 23{\%}.ConclusionsDepressive symptoms and history of hypoglycaemia are associated with fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes. These factors may help to identify people with excessive fear, who may particularly benefit from interventions to reduce hypoglycaemia risk and worries.",
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Fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands . / Nefs, G.M.; Bevelander, S.E.; Hendrieckx, C.; Bot, M.; Ruige, J.; Speight, J.; Pouwer, F.

In: Diabetic Medicine: Journal of the British Diabetic Association, Vol. 32, No. 10, 2015, p. 1289-1296.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes

T2 - Results from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands

AU - Nefs, G.M.

AU - Bevelander, S.E.

AU - Hendrieckx, C.

AU - Bot, M.

AU - Ruige, J.

AU - Speight, J.

AU - Pouwer, F.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - AimsTo examine sociodemographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes.MethodsData were obtained from Diabetes MILES – The Netherlands, an online self-report national survey. This cross-sectional analysis focused on participants with Type 1 diabetes who completed the 18-item Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey – Second Version Worry subscale (HFS–II–W; possible total score range 0–72, higher scores indicating higher fear) (n = 288). To explore correlates of fear of hypoglycaemia, a hierarchical linear regression analysis was performed in participants with full data on sociodemographic, clinical and psychological factors (n = 232; younger and more highly educated than those excluded).ResultsHFS–II–W mean score was 11.1 ± 11.1. Gender, age, education and having a partner (model 1) were not associated with fear of hypoglycaemia. In model 2, history of severe hypoglycaemia (irrespective of number of events) was associated with (greater) fear of hypoglycaemia, whereas diabetes duration, pump therapy and HbA1c were not. Type D personality was positively correlated (model 3), as were symptoms of depression, but not anxiety (model 4). Adding loneliness (model 5) did not improve the model. The fully adjusted analysis showed that fear of hypoglycaemia was associated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.38, P < 0.001) and history of hypoglycaemia (1–2 events: β = 0.30, P < 0.001; ≥ 3 events: β = 0.19, P = 0.002). Total explained variance was 23%.ConclusionsDepressive symptoms and history of hypoglycaemia are associated with fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes. These factors may help to identify people with excessive fear, who may particularly benefit from interventions to reduce hypoglycaemia risk and worries.

AB - AimsTo examine sociodemographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes.MethodsData were obtained from Diabetes MILES – The Netherlands, an online self-report national survey. This cross-sectional analysis focused on participants with Type 1 diabetes who completed the 18-item Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey – Second Version Worry subscale (HFS–II–W; possible total score range 0–72, higher scores indicating higher fear) (n = 288). To explore correlates of fear of hypoglycaemia, a hierarchical linear regression analysis was performed in participants with full data on sociodemographic, clinical and psychological factors (n = 232; younger and more highly educated than those excluded).ResultsHFS–II–W mean score was 11.1 ± 11.1. Gender, age, education and having a partner (model 1) were not associated with fear of hypoglycaemia. In model 2, history of severe hypoglycaemia (irrespective of number of events) was associated with (greater) fear of hypoglycaemia, whereas diabetes duration, pump therapy and HbA1c were not. Type D personality was positively correlated (model 3), as were symptoms of depression, but not anxiety (model 4). Adding loneliness (model 5) did not improve the model. The fully adjusted analysis showed that fear of hypoglycaemia was associated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.38, P < 0.001) and history of hypoglycaemia (1–2 events: β = 0.30, P < 0.001; ≥ 3 events: β = 0.19, P = 0.002). Total explained variance was 23%.ConclusionsDepressive symptoms and history of hypoglycaemia are associated with fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes. These factors may help to identify people with excessive fear, who may particularly benefit from interventions to reduce hypoglycaemia risk and worries.

U2 - 10.1111/dme.12739

DO - 10.1111/dme.12739

M3 - Article

VL - 32

SP - 1289

EP - 1296

JO - Diabetic Medicine: Journal of the British Diabetic Association

JF - Diabetic Medicine: Journal of the British Diabetic Association

SN - 0742-3071

IS - 10

ER -