The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling forsociodemographicactors.Meditation-naïvearticipants from the general population self-presenting with psychological stress complaints (n= 167 participants, 70% women, mean age 45.8 ± 9.3 years) were assessed in a longitudinal investigation of change in mood before and after the intervention and at a 3-month follow-up. Participants initially scoring high on neurot-icism showed stronger decreases in bothanxious and depressed mood (bothp< 0.001). However, when controlled for baseline mood,only the time by neuroticism interaction effect on anxiety remained significant(p=0.001),reflecting a smaller decrease inanxiety between pre-and post-intervention but a larger decrease in anxiety between post-intervention and follow-up in those with higher baseline neuroticism scores. Most personality factors did not show moderating effects, when controlled for base-line mood. Only neuroticism showed to be associated with delayed benefit. Results are discussed in the context of findingsfrom similar research using more traditional cognitive behavioral interventions.