Fragmentation and the Nexus between the WTO and the ECT in Global Energy Governance: A Legal-Institutional Analysis Twenty Years Later

Anna Marhold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


This article discusses the place of both the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) and their role in global energy governance in the light of the fragmentation debate roughly twenty years after their establishment. The Energy Charter Secretariat (ECS), the administrative body overseeing the ECT, has taken tension and overlap between the WTO and the ECT into account by providing extensive guidelines on incorporation of WTO rules into the Treaty. This so-called ‘coordination ex ante’ was aimed at functioning as a conflict prevention tool. However, gaps, conflicts and uncertainties remain. Moreover, developments in the past two decades, such as changes in membership to both the ECT and WTO, combined with an attention shift in a rapidly changing trading landscape, invite a re-evaluation of both treaties in view of fragmentation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)389-435
Number of pages47
JournalJournal of World Investment & Trade
Issue number03
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015
Externally publishedYes


Cite this