Gender and leadership styles: A review of the past decade

M.L. van Engen, T.M. Willemsen

Research output: Book/ReportReport

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Research on sex differences in leadership styles over the past decade (1987-1999) is reviewed and compared with the results of a meta-analysis of studies of the previous period by Eagly and Johnson (1990). Research on transformational or charismatic leadership is included in this review. As was the case in previous overviews, the evidence for sex differences in leadership behavior is still mixed, yet it is clear that these sex differences have not vanished. It is argued that sex differences in leadership styles are largely a consequence of the context in which male and female leaders work. Organizational factors like sex-composition of the immediate working context and hierarchical level are important moderators of leadership styles. We conclude that future research should unravel the impact of structural and organizational features, that are still so confounded with gender, on leadership behavior.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherUnknown Publisher
Number of pages33
Publication statusPublished - 2000

Publication series

NameWORC Paper / Work and Organization Research Centre (WORC)


  • gender differences
  • work organization
  • leadership
  • sociology and psychology


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