Gender differences in associations of depressive symptoms and anxiety with inflammatory markers in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease

P.M.C. Mommersteeg*, P.J.W. Naudé, W. Bagijn, J.W.G.M. Widdershoven, B.W.J.J.M. Westerhuis, R.G. Schoemaker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Objective
The aim of this study was to examine gender differences of the associations between depressive symptoms and anxiety with inflammatory markers in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD).

Methods
Depressive symptoms and anxiety (Beck Depression Inventory BDI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS) were examined in 524 patients with NOCAD (52% women, mean age 64 ± 9 years) as part of the TweeSteden Mild Stenosis (TWIST) observational cohort study. Blood samples were analyzed for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and leukocyte differentiation. Multivariate analysis for the inflammatory markers with main effects of depressive symptoms or anxiety, gender, and their interactions were observed.

Results
Women had elevated levels of hsCRP, and a lower monocyte and eosinophil count than men, with small to medium effect sizes (range η(p)2 = 0.019–0.047). After Holm-Bonferroni correction depressive symptoms according to the BDI were associated with an overall elevated hsCRP level explaining 2.4% of the hsCRP variance. A significant positive association between BDI cognitive symptoms with elevated hsCRP level was observed in men (R2 = 0.045), but not in women (R2 < 0.001). Adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity attenuated this finding.

Conclusion
Small associations of inflammatory markers with depressive symptoms and anxiety were confounded by lifestyle factors, predominantly smoking. The interacting roles of gender, smoking, and psychological factors on inflammatory markers may point toward different behavioral and inflammatory pathways for women and men with NOCAD, which remains to be further explored.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Psychosomatic Research
Volume125
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • C-REACTIVE PROTEIN
  • C-reactive protein
  • CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY
  • CHEST-PAIN
  • Depressive symptoms
  • Eosinophil
  • GELATINASE-ASSOCIATED LIPOCALIN
  • HEART-DISEASE
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Leukocyte differentiation
  • Lymphocyte
  • MAJOR DEPRESSION
  • MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION
  • Monocyte
  • Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin
  • Non-obstructive coronary artery disease
  • PREVALENCE
  • RISK
  • TWEESTEDEN MILD STENOSIS

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