Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a condition with a high mortality risk. Besides traditional risk factors, poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is also associated with poor prognosis in CHF. Immunological functioning might serve as a biological pathway underlying this association, since pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines are independent predictors of prognosis. The aim of this study was to examine the association between HRQoL at inclusion (baseline) and pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels both at baseline and 12months, using a prospective study design. CHF outpatients completed the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and the Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36). Blood samples were drawn at baseline (n=111) and 12months (n=127) to measure pro (IL-6, TNFalpha, sTNFR1, sTNFR2) and anti- (IL1ra, IL-10) inflammatory markers. Linear regression analysis were run for the MLHFQ, the SF-36 mental component summary (MCS) and the physical component summary (PCS), controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking, co morbidity, NYHA-class and 6min walk test. Baseline MLHFQ was associated with increased levels of baseline sTNFR2, and 12-month sTNFR1 12month sTNFR2. Baseline MCS and change in MCS were related to increased 12-month sTNFR1 levels. All significant findings relate a worse HRQoL at baseline or a deterioration over time to increased sTNFR1/2 levels. These findings suggest that immune activation may be one of the pathways underlying the relationship between poor HRQoL and mortality and morbidity in CHF patients. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger samples.
|Journal||Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: An international journal|
|Publication status||Published - 2010|